Instructions

Please read the instructions below before submitting.

  • How to submit
    Abstracts may only be submitted online via this page (not emailed or posted). It is possible to submit an abstract on behalf of someone else.
  • Presenting author
    Each author may be the presenting author of only one standard abstract submitted to Themes 1 to 13.
    Exceptions:
    - All authors may present a second abstract in Theme 14: Cross-cutting Theme: Geochemistry Informing the Public and Policy for a Better World
    - Keynote and medalist speakers may present a second abstract.
  • Co-authors
    All authors you list on an abstract must have approved the submission. Do not list authors who have not approved the submission.
  • Abstract content
    No template is necessary. Abstract text is limited to 350 words (text and references; not including title, authors or affiliations). Equations and up to two tables or photographs or figures may be added: two files can be uploaded with the abstract text (accepted formats: .png or .jpg). Note: Please avoid transparent backgrounds in uploads (set to white if no color).
  • Abstract fee
    To complete your submission, a non-refundable fee of $110 USD is due for every abstract except for abstracts submitted to Theme 14 (i.e. abstracts to Theme 14 are free of charge). The abstract submission fee is only payable by credit card.
  • Presenting author registration
    The presenting author of an abstract must register for the conference by 1 July 2024. If payment of the registration fee has not been received by that date, the abstract will be removed from the program and the abstract fee will not be refunded.
  • Grant applications
    Grant application is part of the abstract submission - read more about the Grant Program. Delegates applying for a grant do not need to pay the abstract fee at the end of the submission process.
  • Archiving
    After the conference, abstracts will be published in the Goldschmidt archive website, where they can be searched alongside all other Goldschmidt abstracts since 2000.
  • TO SUBMIT AN ABSTRACT NOW:
    First click on the theme of your choice from the list below, then click on the session you wish to submit to. Then click on the 'Begin Submission' button. If you are not already signed into 'My Goldschmidt', you will be prompted to sign in using your email address and password. If you do not already have a My Goldschmidt account, you will be able to create one; if you have forgotten your password you will be able to reset it.

The abstract submission deadline is 29 March 2024 (23:59 HST/UTC -10).

01 | THEME 01: FROM DUST TO PLANETS: PATHWAYS TO HABITABLE WORLDS

Humanity is pushing its search for life out to the furthest reaches of the Solar System and beyond, as we identify candidate life-hosting worlds around other stars. The concept of planetary habitability has become central in guiding this exploration, informed by the habitable niches of our Solar System’s moons and planets. Habitability defines the physicochemical conditions on a planet required for life to be maintained, often including the presence of liquid water, free energy sources, and viability for organic chemistry.  This is a powerful concept now connecting across the Earth, planetary, and exoplanetary sciences and forms the focus of this theme, which will provide constraints on the conditions leading to the emergence of habitable worlds. This includes topics such as the evolution of protoplanetary disks and their primordial reservoirs, the study of primitive Solar System materials and asteroidal bodies, the timescales and mechanisms of terrestrial planet formation, the composition of (exo)planet atmospheres, the source of volatiles to the inner Solar System, and the early histories of Earth, Mars, Moon and outer Solar System moons. We welcome contributions from all these diverse and connected fields, including laboratory study of extraterrestrial samples, remote sensing, robotic exploration, analogue field work, astrophysics, and astronomy.
  • 1a: "Core-mantle differentiation of solar system bodies beyond Earth"

    Core formation is the consequence of planet accretion as a whole. The Earth has a core mantle ratio which is essentially average for many aspects among the terrestrial bodies, but all other rocky members of the solar system have rather strange core mantle ratios which must record their accretion processes and reflect the physics and chemistry of their feeding zones. With progress in space missions, people have realized that giant planets and Pluto have rather different core and mantle compositions which should contain the information of early Solar nebula stages. In this session, we would like to combine astronomical observations and simulations, results of space missions as well as geochemical-geophysical experiments and calculations to present our current understanding about the core-mantle segregation of solar system bodies.

  • 1b: "New research into bolide airbursts and cratering impacts, on atmospheric responses and fallout aspects"

    Extraterrestrial body impacts on the Earth play an important role in shaping the Earth's life and history. Bolide airbursts are much less powerful than cratering impacts but much more frequent. Examples of recent airbursts include the well-known Tunguska airburst in 1908, Comet Shoemaker-Levy’s collision with Jupiter in 1994, and the Chelyabinsk airburst in 2012. Descriptions of apparent ancient airburst events have been preserved in folklore and ancient literature, suggesting that airbursts have been witnessed throughout human history, such as the YDB airburst of 12.9 ka and the potential Taihu airburst of 7 ka. Less than 200 examples of significant cratering impacts are preserved, such as the impacts at the Cretaceous–Paleogene (KPg) boundary and the Permian-Triassic (P/T) boundary, and so on. Many more impact craters, especially those less than 100 m in diameter by small bolides in geologic history, are missing or not well constrained. The studies are needed to determine what evidences are necessary to identify paleo-bolide impacts in the geologic record, especially the fallout evidence from the impact plume. The physical processes of one bolide impact include deceleration, ablation, and fragmentation when entering the atmosphere, shock wave interaction with the ground surface or water body, and final fallout falling processes, which all are not well studied. This session will focus on the atmospheric responses in the bolide impact and cratering impact: modelling physics, atmospheric effects, ground surface effects, and fallout aspects.

  • 1c: "Exploring Asteroid Bennu in the Laboratory: Early Results from NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Sample Return Mission"

    On September 24th, 2023, NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission returned a capsule to Earth carrying material from the carbonaceous asteroid Bennu. This milestone event marked the first time a U.S. mission delivered pristine samples from an asteroid. In this special session, organized on behalf of the OSIRIS-REx sample analysis team, we will look at some of the early science results which provide important information on conditions in the early Solar System. This multidisciplinary session will feature presentations discussing a wide array of topics, such as sources and sinks of prebiotic building blocks, nebular and parent-body processes, relationships between remote sensing and sample analysis findings, and ultimately the origin and evolution of asteroid Bennu. Presentations will provide detailed insights into the organic, geochemical, petrologic, mineralogic, and spectroscopic properties of asteroid Bennu and how these relate to other asteroid samples, such as those recently returned from the asteroid Ryugu, and meteorites. The research on Bennu presented here and the studies to follow will significantly advance our understanding of the Solar System’s formation and potentially the origins of life on Earth.

  • 1d: "The origin and dynamics of all volatiles on Earth, other planets and planetesimals"

    Volatiles play a crucial role for establishing Earth’s unique mantle rheology and dynamics, its tectonic style, atmospheric composition, and overall its habitability. The volatile composition of a planetary mantle is a consequence of its accretion and differentiation, so it may hold important clues regarding the origin of a planet. On Earth specifically, surface-mantle exchange continues to modify the primordial budgets of mantle volatiles during Earth’ evolution untill present day. Similar processes widely occurring on planetesimals and other terrestrial planets may differ from those on Earth, but serve as important comparisons. We call for contributions on the origin, budget, and dynamics of volatiles in the mantle of Earth and other planets from a breadth of fields within planetary science. Through this session, we invite discussions on elemental and isotopic behavior of volatiles during processes of planetary growth, differentiation, and geological cycling. We invite contributions from all fields of planetary sciences, including but not limited to inclusion studies, isotope geochemistry, experimental petrology, and numerical modelling. Submission from early-career scientists and traditionally under-represented groups are strongly encouraged.

  • 1e: "Planetary Chemistry: from geochemistry to prebiotic chemistry to life"

    The origin of life is a planetary chemistry problem, spanning planetary science and geochemistry (chemical context) to synthetic organic chemistry (prebiotic syntheses) to biochemistry (hints to abiogenesis from early life). The intersection of these diverse fields can be used to better constrain the possible processes and circumstances surrounding origins of life. Rather than considering these fields independently of each other, treating the process of origins of life as continuous processes operating under plausible planetary environments can potentially improve progress in this traditionally challenging topic. This session will focus on topics related to planetary environments and geochemistry, how these may influence or constrain prebiotic chemistry, and how prebiotic chemistry in turn can provide insight into the local and planetary environments where it can occur. We solicit contributions aimed at refining our understanding of the origins-of-life problem through the feedback between planetary environments and synthetic chemical pathways using theoretical, experimental, and observational approaches.

  • 1f: "Isotopes and magnetism: signatures frozen in time"

    Broadly, the formation of the Solar System involved a whole lot of gas and dust, gravity, stellar ignition, the formation of solids, the transport of materials, and planetary body formation—all within a few million years during a very active period of the young Sun. But how are we to untangle the details of that timeline and understand the starting conditions of the Solar System? Lucky for us, the birth environment of the Sun and planets left myriad clues that permit us to fill in those empty pages in the Solar System’s baby book. These clues to our past come in many forms, and while many clues are still being interpreted, new ones are being uncovered as research methods advance. In this session, we welcome abstracts related to how we went “from dust to planets” in the Solar System with a focus on paleomagnetic and isotopic studies. This includes theoretical, experimental, and analytical progress using these, and associated, tools that set us on a path to a better understanding of the earliest conditions and events in the Solar System.

  • 1g: "Icy ocean worlds: Exploration and habitability"

    The icy moons of our Solar System have emerged as an important frontier in our search for life beyond Earth. We know that several of these moons host vast sub-surface oceans of liquid water beneath their icy crusts and therefore may contain habitable environments that have persisted to present day. Embedded within the magnetospheres of their host planet, the icy moons experience intense charged particle radiation that directly affects their surfaces, and can be the source of significant chemical alteration, including the creation and modification of non-water ice species. Non-ice impurities can also represent both drivers and signatures of the broader geodynamics of these worlds, and are an important avenue for geochemical and geophysical investigations of their global habitability. In this session we solicit contributions that bridge the fields of geochemistry, geodynamics, and geophysics towards icy moons exploration with an emphasis on investigating their habitability. This includes laboratory studies of analogue materials, analogue field work, and numerical or theoretical models. We encourage contributions which consider processes or properties of interfaces such as the ocean-mantle and ice-ocean; studies that evaluate how data collected by upcoming, future, or proposed missions can be used to provide constraints on the habitability of icy ocean worlds; and how moon-magnetophere interactions leads to radiation processing of their ice surface and liquid subsurface chemistry.

02 | THEME 02: EARTH'S INTERIOR: FORMATION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND EVOLUTION

The interior of the Earth comprises most of our planet and is fundamental to understanding its origin and evolution. Convective motions within Earth profoundly influence surface environment, and in turn, the evolution of the interior is influenced by the return flow of material from the surface. Thus, the Earth’s interior holds the key to understanding a host of processes, from metal silicate differentiation and magma ocean crystallization to the evolving nature of material and energy exchange between the interior and surface over the past 4.5 billion years. Interdisciplinary investigations that apply observational and theoretical geophysics, geochemistry, experimental petrology and mineral physics have the power to elucidate the workings of the Earth’s interior and how it interacts with the surface over space and time. In this theme, we encourage session proposals on the origin and early differentiation of the Earth, on the chemical and physical processes occurring in the Earth’s interior across all scales of time and space, the nature of material and energy exchange between the interior and surface, insights into the Earth reservoirs including the upper mantle, transition zone, lower mantle and core, as well as the interactions between the crust, mantle and core and their evolution over time.
  • 2a: "Planets from the inside out: Celebrating Dr. William F. McDonough's contributions to (extra)terrestrial geochemistry and beyond"

    Much effort has been expended over the past three decades in understanding the formation, differentiaton, and physicochemical evolution of the solid Earth and other terrestrial planets. Such effort has profoundly contributed to our understanding of the interactions between planetary interiors with atmospheres, hydrospheres, and biospheres through geological time. This session will focus on the composition and structure of planetary cores, mantles, and crusts in the greater context of the origin and evolution of the Solar System. We welcome contributions providing observational, experimental, and theoretical insights from petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and/or geophysics, many of which were pioneered by Bill McDonough.

  • 2b: "Deep planetary interiors: new experimental and analytical approaches"

    Experimental studies and theoretical simulations of material properties at extreme conditions are one of the few but prevailing ways that geoscientists use to understand and model the processes taking place in the most complex parts of the deep Earth and other planetary interiors. Yet more discoveries await in sight of recent technological advances in experimental designs and computing efficiency, sample preparation and synthesis methods, analytical tools as well as AI assisted data collection and processing protocols with supporting software. The science front is driven by the challenges that the high-pressure community faces in exploring the mineral physics and crystal chemistry of geomaterials at elevated pressure, temperature and stress conditions. In particular, the enhanced spatial and energy resolution of X-ray and optical techniques at large facilities and advanced laboratories encourage experiments at the ultimate instrumental limits. The resulted superior data quality derived grand access to an infinite number of mineral properties, and in combination with computational approaches, allow the full assessment of countless plausible scenarios that help describe the micro- and macroscopic processes that govern the deep planetary interiors. This session welcomes all contributions that highlight cutting-edge achievements in static and dynamic experimental methods as well as novel analytical approaches that address a variety of physical and chemical properties of minerals, and enhance our understanding of the evolution, structure and dynamics of the Earth’s interior and that of other planetary bodies.

  • 2c: "Behavior and effects of volatiles in melts and fluids under extreme conditions"

    Melts and fluids are crucial for mass and heat transfer in planetary interiors, and are essential for understanding the dynamics and evolution of terrestrial planets. Volatiles can dissolve in melts and fluids in varying amounts depending on pressure, temperature, and fugacity conditions, significantly altering their physical and chemical properties. For example, volatiles like water can significantly lower the melting temperatures of rocks, modify the melting/crystallization sequence, and affect element partitioning and isotope fractionation, which is vital for chemical differentiation in planetary interiors. The solubility, speciation, and migration of volatiles in melts control magma ingassing and degassing. This also influences the density, viscosity and conductivity, which are responsible for the Earth’s liquid core dynamo and the variability of volcanism. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the behavior and effects of volatiles in fluids and melts under high pressure and temperature conditions is crucial for various research domains in Earth and planetary sciences. This session will focus on various aspects of volatiles, melts, and fluids in terrestrial planets' interiors, ranging from the crust to the core through ancient times to modern periods. We welcome contributions on volatiles in melts and fluids, including but not limited to: structural and physiochemical properties of melts and fluids with volatiles; element partitioning and fractionation; crystallization and melting; magma degassing; density; elastic properties; diffusivity; viscosity; conductivity; and their effects on planetary processes occurring at depths. Experimental, analytical, and computational studies are welcomed, and interdisciplinary studies are especially encouraged.

  • 2d: "Probing Earth and planetary interiors with advanced computational methods"

    Understanding the physicochemical properties of the materials constituting Earth and other planets is crucial, especially as these materials are subjected to a wide range of pressure, temperature, and redox conditions. Computational approach continues to gain significant prominence in the investigation of planetary materials. This session is designed to convene experts to discuss the latest computational advancements, spanning from first principles to multi-scale modeling, and encompassing approaches like machine learning and deep learning, high-throughput computing, data visualization, and analytics. Their applications cover a variety of topics, including structure, thermodynamics, elasticity, defects, diffusion, deformation, element partitioning, isotope fractionation, and the unique attributes of glasses, melts, and multi-component materials. We extend a warm invitation to innovators at the crossroads of mineral physics, geophysics, and geochemistry, championing a holistic probe into the planetary interiors.

  • 2e: "Volatile delivery, storage, and transportation within the early Earth system"

    The origin and evolution of volatile elements within the Earth system are critical for determining the density of the core, the rheology of the interior, the composition of the atmosphere, and establishing planetary habitability. Volatile elements include those critical for life (H, C, N, O, S, and P) as well as the noble gasses (He, Ne, Kr, Ar, and Xe). This session is particularly interested in new developments in the understanding of how volatiles were incorporated into specific reservoirs within Earth's interior and the transfer of volatiles between those reservoirs and with the ocean and atmosphere. Discovering the details of how volatile elements were delivered, stored, and transported within Earth is an interdisciplinary problem that spans astrophysics, planetary science, and the geosciences. This session invites contributions from these fields including cosmochemistry, geodynamics, elemental and isotopic geochemistry, experimental petrology, and mineral physics.

  • 2f: "Elasticity and transport properties of mantle and core materials"

    The surface features and internal structures of Earth and other planets are intimately connected to the dynamics of the mantle and core. Recent geophysical and geochemical observations suggest that the mantle and core are characterized by widespread thermochemical heterogeneities and seismic anomalies within the Earth’s interior. Elasticity and transport properties of mantle and core materials are critical to interpreting these observations. Accurate measurements of transport properties including viscosity, diffusion, thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as elasticity, are strongly dependent on pressure, temperature, and composition. In this session, we invite contributions that combine experiments, theoretical predictions, and numerical modeling of the elasticity and transport properties of terrestrial materials, with implications for deciphering geophysical and geochemical observations of the deep Earth and planetary interiors.

03 | THEME 03: CRUSTAL PROCESSES AND EVOLUTION

The crust is Earth’s most complex geochemical reservoir. As the interface between the surface (water, life, and climate) and the mantle, its physical and chemical components provide insights into interactions among Earth’s many dynamic systems. It also provides a rich record for how those systems (and Earth as a whole) have evolved through geological time. The sessions of this theme aim to understand: (1) How the crust forms and evolves; (2) How the processes of crustal formation have changed through time; (3) Interactions between the crust and Earth’s other geochemical systems. We encourage both specialized and multidisciplinary contributions covering a range of physical and temporal scales that represent the diversity of crustal studies. These include (but are not limited to) magmatism, metamorphism, deformation, fluid-rock interaction, weathering, erosion, burial & uplift, [plate] tectonics, paleogeography, orogenesis, geochronology, and the every-improving array of field, analytical, experimental, and numerical tools at our disposal to study these topics.
  • 3a: "Oceanic lithosphere evolution: Crust-mantle geodynamics to melt processes and reservoirs"

    The complex evolution of the oceanic lithosphere since continentals' breakup must be unravelled if we would like to better understand the dynamics of Earth cycles, mantle convection, and plate motion. A comprehensive understanding of the evolution and the relationship between continental and oceanic lithospheres, analyzing the complex evolutionary conjugated margins and their COB and/or COT, to unravel the oceanic lithosphere which requires consideration of different geotectonic contexts and structures, from basement reactivation, active mid-ocean ridges, aseismic ridges, oceanic plateaus, microplates, seamount ridges, continental crust fragments, including SCLM or exhumed mantle, as well as the structure and constitution of the continental margins and structural heritage. The composition of the oceanic crust accreted along mid-ocean ridges depends not only on heterogeneous mantle sources, but also on the modalities of melt differentiation and migration during its ascent towards the surface, and the magmatic evolution and interaction through time, where migration potentially triggers melt reactions/interactions and, therefore, challenges historical models of melt differentiation. In addition to crustal heterogeneities inherited from several factors previously discussed, other processes may increase the complexity of oceanic crust evolution: active plumes, ancient delaminated continental crust, oceanic slabs dehydration, sediments input, among others. The results of geophysical, structural geological, tectonic, and petrological surveys are refreshing concepts, and linking mantle and crustal dynamics in oceanic regions are the focus of our session. This session will also focus on geodynamic reconstructions and the evolution of all oceanic crust records, including their conjugated margins, 'from birth to death'.

  • 3b: "Novel advances in understanding the behavior of noble gases in geologic materials"

    Noble gases serve an important role as key geochemical and geochronologic tracers in a wide range of geologic materials. This group of elements, which represent 23 isotopes with a highly heterogeneous distribution on an mineralogical-cosmic scale, offers insights into a diverse array of earth and planetary processes, including solar system formation, planetary evolution, tectonics, mantle outgassing, paleoclimate, and hydrogeological and geochemical processes. Applying noble gases to investigate these processes requires a deeper understanding of the production and movement of noble gases through geologic materials. Recent work by the noble gas community has yielded advancements in our understanding of noble gas production, diffusion, partitioning, and solubility in geologic materials including rocks, minerals, fluids, gases, and extraterrestrial objects. This session invites submissions that cover any aspect of this wide range of topics, with a particular focus on advances in the measurement, modeling, and kinetic theory of noble gases in geologic materials.

  • 3c: "Multifaceted approaches to understanding the assembly and breakup of continents"

    The recent advances in field and laboratory studies across a range of spatial and temporal scales have greatly changed our understanding of the geodynamic processes involved in continental collisions, rifting, and the supercontinent cycle. Mapping, structural geology, and geophysical data help in resolving the three-dimensional architecture of rock units and their record of thermo-tectonic events. Petrological and geochemical data, increasingly integrated with geochronology, provide fundamental information on the source and crustal residence times of magmatic activity, as well as constraints on tectonic settings. Developments in mass-spectrometry are enabling trace element and age data on an ever-expanding set of mineral phases that are generated, reset, and reworked. We seek submissions that make use of integrating one or more data sets to increase our understanding of continental assembly, breakup, and the paleogeographic disposition of the continental blocks involved.

  • 3d: "Timing and rates of crustal processes and beyond: new advances in geo- and thermochronology"

    Geochronology and thermochronology provide the methodology that allows us to determine the rates and durations of the processes that shape our planet. Progress in analytical capabilities leads to a continuous increase of the number of datable minerals, with new applications including processes that were once thought to be undatable. Today’s geochronologists can choose from a range of well-established and new methods and protocols, such as reaction cell mass spectrometry, U-Pb dating of non-traditional minerals, Raman dating, and laser-ablation-based in-situ thermochronology. Also, new approaches seek to combine geochronology with additional characterization such as isotope geochemistry, geo- and thermochronological dating on the same minerals, or dating of different minerals from the same sample. These strategies enhance our ability to disentangle processes such as sediment transport, burial, exhumation, fluid-rock interaction, and fault activity to an unprecedented level. This session’s goal is to provide an overview of the current status of geo- and thermochronological methods and their applications. We welcome contributions addressing, but not limited to novel applications, and multi-method studies for tracing geological processes, and analytical and data-handling improvements.

  • 3e: "Integrating petrology, geochronology and geochemistry of subduction zones"

    Subduction zones are important locations for shaping the Earth's physical and chemical evolution. Processes of subduction zone metamorphism and fluid-mediated mass transfer between subducted lithosphere and overlying mantle wedge result in substantial changes of the properties of the subducting slab, including rheology, mineralogy and chemistry. Understanding the processes and changes in the slab due to subduction metamorphism impacts our understanding of geochemical cycling at subduction zones, the generation of arc volcanoes, the formation of continental crust, and the concentration of elements of economic importance. In this session we invite contributions focusing on studies of natural samples, as well as both experimental and theoretical approaches. We invite studies that use a range of techniques to address these questions, including petrology, thermobarometry, geochronology, novel stable isotope systems, trace elements, and thermodynamic modelling.

  • 3f: "Early Earth Processes: Crust-Mantle evolution in the Hadean and Archean Eons"

    Revealing the early chemical evolution of our planet is essential for understanding Earth’s emerging habitability as well as its current chemical architecture. The signatures within the oldest rock and mineral record, when read correctly, can reveal interactions between the mantle, the crust, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere through time providing constraints on Earth’s geodynamic history.

    This session welcomes contributions using traditional and novel geochemical approaches, geodynamical modelling, field observations, experiments, geochronology, and petrology for revealing Earth's early chemical history. Key questions include the timing and tempo of crust formation and the reasons for variability; the role of early planetary differentiation and exogenic processes in generating chemical variability; interactions between internal (crust and mantle) and external (atmosphere and hydrosphere) reservoirs, including their potential impact on the biosphere; and the development of innovative tools to shed a new light on mantle–crust differentiation processes.

  • 3g: "Formation of evolved crust on Earth and other planets"

    Crust forms as an outcome of terminal planetary differentiation. On Earth, unique differentiation processes have led to the formation of abundant evolved crust. This crust offers a rich record of Earth’s complex tectonic history and also acts as an important boundary layer that controls mass and energy exchange between Earth’s surface and mantle. These processes have profoundly shaped Earth’s surface environment and altered the physiochemical properties of Earth’s interior. However, we have a limited understanding of the formation, differentiation, and stabilization of the Earth’s crust, including rarely exposed deep crust that immediately overlies the mantle. Furthermore, sporadic formation of evolved crust has also been documented on extraterrestrial planets over the last several decades, adding a new dimension to our understanding of planetary crust evolution. This session welcomes abstracts related to the crustal igneous, metamorphic, and weathering processes on Earth and beyond.

04 | THEME 04: MAGMATISM, VOLCANISM, AND THEIR IMPACTS

This theme invites researchers to share and delve into the diverse ways in which magmas and volcanoes influence the dynamics, histories, resources, and livability of Earth and other planets.  As magmas rise from mantle and crust, they induce metamorphism, metasomatism, and hydrothermal circulation.  They contribute directly to possible resources like ore deposits and geothermal power and their activity and landscapes draw tourists and effect local hydrology and soil quality. But erupting volcanoes can also impact the built environment, ecosystems, and agriculture.  Depending on a suite of factors that involve degassing, kinetics, and multiphase flow, they can effusive quietly or wreak havoc as catastrophic explosions. Their consequences can be complex, for example falling volcanic products can simultaneously poison drinking water and fertilize farmland.  The output of volcanic gases has a major throughgoing influence on the chemistry of the atmosphere and the short- and long-term variations of our climate. We encourage Goldschmidt colleagues to propose sessions that explore magmas, volcanoes and their varied positive and negative impacts, using a wide range of approaches, including historical, theoretical, experimental, and analytical methodologies. By fostering an integrated understanding of igneous processes and their implications for our planet and society, we can collectively advance our knowledge in this field.
  • 4a: "Across the arc: Tracking magma transfer from source to eruption in subduction-related volcanoes"

    Volcanic arcs produce some of the most explosive eruptions on Earth, and host economically valuable deposits of copper and other metals critical for renewable energies and our sustainable future. Arc volcanism typically results in the formation of stratovolcanoes made up of crystal-rich calc-alkaline magmas, commonly linked to dehydration of the subducting slab followed by protracted differentiation through vertically extensive mush systems. However, subduction zones are intricately complex. They may, for example, involve monogenetic volcanism fed by more direct transfer pathways, as well as distinct eruptive activity in back-arc regions and beyond. A comprehensive understanding of magma generation, transport, and storage across and along arc settings, spanning oceanic to continental systems, is essential to better constrain the links between volcanic arcs, eruption style and hazards, and economic mineralization.

    This session invites contributions that delve into magma generation and transfer in subduction settings, exploring their relationships with magmatic architecture, eruption triggers, and mineralization potential. We encourage studies employing field observations, textural evidence, experimental petrology, and geochemical data from elements to isotopes, and from bulk rock to intra-crystal and melt heterogeneities. Additionally, we particularly welcome multi-disciplinary studies involving novel geochemical approaches and advanced computational techniques. We are excited to generate a diverse forum to discuss the intricacies of arc volcanoes across space and time. Join us in this collaborative effort to expand our knowledge of dynamic arc systems and their impact on our planet and society.

  • 4b: "Diffusion and kinetics in minerals and melts: new approaches, isotope diffusion, and diffusion chronometry"

    Diffusion studies are entering a new phase with the advancement of experimental, analytical, and theoretical techniques. For example, in addition to studies on elemental diffusivity, investigation of diffusive isotope fractionation in both melts and minerals is becoming more and more popular. In silicate melts, treating multicomponent diffusion in eigen-component space is being explored. More diffusion chronometry models have been developed and also debated. The purpose of the session is to bring together the community to discuss recent advances in diffusion and kinetics and to explore future directions. We welcome contributions around the general topics of the determination of diffusion data, diffusion modeling, kinetic data and modeling, and the implications for understanding processes and time scales of natural systems. Abstract contributions from early-career scientists and traditionally under-represented groups are especially encouraged.

  • 4c: "The architecture and dynamics of caldera-forming eruptions and their source regions"

    Large-scale volcanic eruptions pose significant global hazards, which can have far-reaching societal and economic consequences. The ongoing unrest at the Campi Flegrei caldera in Italy highlights the critical need for a thorough understanding of magmatic processes within volcanic plumbing systems and the dynamics governing magma ascent and eruption at calderas.

    Processes involved in the formation, growth, and eruption of expansive transcrustal magmatic systems operate over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, involving complex geologic and petrologic dynamics. These processes play a fundamental role in influencing the timing and style of volcanic activity. Evidence for understanding such caldera-forming systems and their eruptive processes comes from geological, petrological, geophysical, experimental, and modelling studies. 

    Establishing links between magma dynamic processes across different scales within large transcrustal plumbing systems and during eruption is crucial to forecast their evolution over time and towards potential caldera-forming events, and consequently to providing more accurate hazard and risk assessment. Therefore, this session cordially invites cross-disciplinary contributions focusing on the physical, chemical, and temporal evolution of magmatic plumbing systems that lead to caldera-forming eruptions using diverse techniques such as field, geophysical or geodetic observations, theoretical or analytical models, petrological and geochemical constraints, and experimental or numerical methods. We also welcome scientific findings that contribute to a better characterization of eruptive processes and the hazards and risks of potential caldera-forming systems.

    This session is co-sponsored by the IAVCEI commissions of Collapse Calderas and Volcanic and Igneous Plumbing Systems.

  • 4d: "Large Igneous Provinces and Their Impacts Through Earth History"

    Plume-related Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are now recognized to have an effect on the Earth System comparable to Plate Tectonics. LIPs can be traced back to >3 Ga and occur on average approximately every 30 myr at least back into the late Archean, and potentially even double that rate (every 15 myr) when oceanic LIPs are included (extrapolated from the record of the past 200 myr).  LIPs play a key role in major geodynamic processes, including regional uplift, formation and evolution of the lithosphere, supercontinent breakup, and ore deposits. Moreover, LIPs directly or indirectly contribute to dramatic environmental and climatic changes, including mass extinctions, oceanic anoxic events, hyperthermal events, global glaciations. LIPs can also be linked to significant silicic magmatism (SLIPs), carbonatites and kimberlites. We welcome contributions from a diverse range of disciplines to encourage a multi-faceted discussion of LIP systems, including igneous and sedimentary geochemistry, geophysics, experimental petrology, geochronology, and studies utilizing chemical and biological proxies in the stratigraphic record. Novel and provocative contributions are particularly encouraged, as well as those from groups underrepresented in the geoscience community.

  • 4e: "The mysterious origins of carbonatites, their influence on mantle and crustal processes, and their role as critical resources"

    Carbonatite melts, carbonatitic fluids, and associated CO2-rich alkaline silicate magmas demonstrate the key role carbon plays in the global volatile cycle across mantle–crust–atmosphere interfaces. Rarely exposed on Earth’s surface but likely stable throughout much of the upper mantle and crust, carbonatites are essential sources of critical metals such as rare earth elements and niobium, which are required for emerging sustainable technologies such as electrical vehicles and wind turbines. This session seeks to combine experimental petrology, radiogenic and non-traditional stable isotope geochemistry, modeling, and geophysics to address major questions about the origins and
    differentiation of these enigmatic magmas, and their role in the deep carbon cycle. For instance, is the carbon in carbonatites recycled via subduction or intrinsic to the mantle? Are carbonatites generated by low degrees of partial melting, liquid immiscibility, or partial melting of subducted sediments, and where? How do they evolve and chemically interact during transport and emplacement into the crust? How are rare earth elements incorporated into and concentrated in carbonatitic and alkaline silicate magmas, and surrounding host rocks, sometimes to economic abundances? These questions and others are paramount for understanding volatile element cycling in—and the fundamental properties of—the upper mantle and crust, and for natural resource extraction.

  • 4f: "Volatile Cycling, from Mantle to Crust: Experimental, Geological, and Numerical Insights"

    Subduction zones and their associated volcanoes are loci for volatile element cycling on Earth. Critically,
    volatile elements determine how magmatic systems form and develop in this setting. They exert strong
    control on melt formation and subsequent differentiation, drive both explosive volcanism and ore
    formation after exsolution, and ultimately modulate atmospheric composition over geologic timescales.
    That said, critical knowledge gaps exist within our understanding of how these elements are carried
    from Earth’s surface into the mantle and back out again. This session seeks interdisciplinary studies
    focused on enhancing our understanding of magmatic volatile element cycling and the roles they play in
    the compositional evolution of the Earth, volcanic eruption styles and forecasting, and in the formation
    of critical mineral ores.
    We invite contributions based on field observations, geochemical investigation (including petrologic and
    gas emission studies), experimental petrology, and numerical modelling with emphasis on volatile
    budgets and degassing, slab dehydration, partial melting, transport mechanisms, mixed volatile
    solubilities, and ore formation. Submissions from early career scientists and from under-represented
    groups are strongly encouraged.

  • 4g: "Geochronological and geochemical approaches to understanding volcanic stratigraphy and magmatism"

    The session aims to explore the scientific techniques used to study volcanic rocks and their formation processes. It will emphasize the significance of geochronology and geochemistry in unraveling the intricate history of volcanic stratigraphy and magmatism. Researchers will present their findings on how these approaches have enhanced our understanding of volcanic eruptions, magma evolution, and the development of volcanic rock sequences. Topics to be discussed include the utilization of radiometric dating methods like U-Pb and Ar-Ar dating to establish the timing of volcanic events. Moreover, advances in geochemical analysis techniques, including major and trace element analysis, isotopic analysis, and melt inclusion studies, will be explored. By integrating geochronological and geochemical data, scientists can reconstruct the temporal and compositional evolution of volcanic systems, offering insights into magma sources, eruption dynamics, and volcanic hazards. This session will provide a platform for researchers to share methodologies, data interpretations, and discuss the latest advancements in this field. This session promises to be an informative and engaging forum for researchers interested in studying the geological processes underlying volcanic activity.

05 | THEME 05: EARTH RESOURCES AND ENERGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: MINERALS, MELTS, AND FLUIDS

The next decades will see a significant rise in mineral and metal resource utilization, and major changes in the resources used for energy and new technologies, due to the need to achieve net zero emissions. This trend of increasing demand for a variety of resources, combined with increasing environmental, social, and geopolitical pressures, poses unprecedented challenges for the minerals and energy sectors. The sessions in this theme will address all aspects of geochemistry in mineral and energy resources, covering topics like responsible exploration and extraction for raw materials, the generation and storage of low-carbon energy resources, and the effective management of waste products. Additionally, discussions will address innovative methods for geometallurgy, mineral processing, and recycling to promote circular economies and sustainable supply chains.  Topics that are in scope for this session include (but are not limited to) mineral and metal raw materials; hydrogen; geothermal heat and power; carbon capture, sequestration and monitoring; and nuclear energy. We welcome session proposals incorporating field studies, mineralogical, petrological and geochemical investigations, and modeling approaches, and also those exploring experimental aspects of resource formation involving melts, fluids and minerals, as well as the environmental and social implications of responsible mining.
  • 5a: "Advances in Hydrothermal Fluid Geochemistry: Celebrating the Legacy of Terry Seward"

    Hydrothermal systems are some of the most dynamic and intriguing environments on our planet, where fluids interact with Earth's subsurface, shaping the geological and chemical landscapes.  The symposium encourages contributions from scientists at all career stages and from broad scope within the field of hydrothermal geochemistry, including the quantification and modeling of aqueous speciation in hydrothermal fluids, inorganic and organic hydrothermal geochemistry, molecular-level modeling of hydrothermal fluid properties, isotope hydrothermal geochemistry, mineral-fluid interaction, and the exploration and utilization of natural hydrothermal and ore-forming systems. The symposium is held in honor of Professor Dr. Terry Seward, a pioneer within the field of hydrothermal geochemistry. Terry's contributions were instrumental, notably in understanding the solubility of ore metals in hydrothermal fluids. His data on gold, silver, lead, zinc, and other compounds continue to serve as cornerstones for modern thermodynamic models, aiding in comprehending understanding of ore deposit formations. Terry's work extended beyond the laboratory, where he worked on natural geothermal and volcanic systems with his efforts having profound insights into the abiotic origins of organic compounds and metal speciation within volcanic and hydrothermal gases.

  • 5b: "Exploring Earth's deep subsurface"

    This session will focus on innovative approaches to investigating subsurface Earth resources. Such approaches may include scientific drilling, use of geophysical data, and 3D modelling in combination with geology and geochemistry. We particularly welcome submissions associated with major research programmes including (but not in any way limited to) the International Continental Drilling Programme, the International Ocean Discovery Programme, the Earth Mapping Resources Initiative, and Deep-Time Digital Earth. The session will cover investigations for all deep Earth resources, but with emphasis on those resources required for the energy transition, such as critical minerals; natural hydrogen; geothermal energy; suitable rocks and reservoirs for carbon sequestration; and sites for storing nuclear waste. A key aim of the session will be to strengthen links between the scientific drilling community and those engaged in research on these deep Earth resources.

  • 5c: "Experimental and numerical investigation of hydro-geochemical processes in the subsurface for sustainable resource management"

    With the ongoing global efforts towards decarbonization, the exploitation of the subsurface for energy related applications will increase e.g., geothermal energy extraction, CO2 sequestration, H2 storage, or even nuclear waste disposal. The underlying hydro-geochemical processes in these subsurface applications set the systems out of equilibrium and can lead to changes in chemical properties, in transport properties due to the alteration of the pore structure, as well as in the mechanical properties of the rock matrix. In turn, these mechanisms can strongly affect the efficiency, the integrity, and the safety of the system of interest. Cross-scale experimental and modelling approaches are needed to generate spatio-temporal insights into hydro-geochemical processes with a realistic description of the subsurface evolution and contaminant transport. This session offers a platform for the discussion of cutting-edge experimental and numerical approaches. We invite contributions that encompass recent advancements, including but not limited to: (i) novel experimental methodologies for characterizing reactive fluid transport in porous media, (ii) theoretical and numerical studies of coupled hydro-geological processes in porous media (iii) upscaling approaches (iv) AI based tools to speed up experimental analyses, geochemical modelling or for upscaling methodologies (v) geochemical modelling and groundwater geochemistry (vi) digital twins.

  • 5d: "Subsurface Energy Storage and Geological Hydrogen Systems"

    Interest in molecular hydrogen is soaring as the energy transition in many economies considers hydrogen as a significant energy carrier in the near future. Additionally, discoveries of elevated hydrogen concentrations in natural subsurface fluids have heightened awareness of the possibility of naturally occurring hydrogen as a primary energy resource. Quantifying the processes that produce or oxidize hydrogen, via abiotic or biotic mechanisms face many challenges. Experimental studies on the transport of the gases, and mass transfer of hydrogen and methane from aqueous to gas phases, face obstacles in excluding reactions during transport to precisely derive new data on mass transfer functions at in situ conditions in the subsurface. These studies are critical for subsurface storage of hydrogen and methane as energy carriers.

    Studies of near-surface hydrogen fluxes (e.g., in soils) involve the analysis of low concentrations of hydrogen in the field, the temporal variability of hydrogen fluxes, as well as the possibility of artificially producing hydrogen during sampling/drilling. Furthermore, efforts are underway to model the various processes and reactions that influence the potential accumulation of natural hydrogen on a large scale, with the goal of identifying regions for more comprehensive investigation.

    To facilitate these endeavours, this session aims to bring together the diverse communities engaged in disciplines relevant to the prospects of subsurface storage of hydrogen and methane as well as geologic hydrogen resources. We encourage presentations from both experimentalists and modellers, fostering the exchange of different methodologies, data, and models.

  • 5e: "Footprints, fingerprints, and imprints: Geochemical patterns of ore deposits"

    Mineral deposits are complex systems controlled by both syngenetic and epigenetic processes and are a function of tectonic setting, host rock composition, evolving fluid chemistries, and epigenetic overprint. With increasing demand on metals throughout nearly every aspect of human life, a thorough understanding of how these factors contribute to the variety of mineralogy, composition, alteration assemblages, and textures is essential to understand deposit morphology/geometry, metal tenor, and metal recovery. This variability has also contributed to persistent open questions about the controls on mineral deposit formation impacting both the mineral system (e.g., source region, pathways) and the deposit itself (micro-scale to macro-scale). To aid in evaluating the formation of ore deposits, and thus contribute to future exploration efforts, comprehensive deposit models are needed that combine a variety of geologic and geochemical approaches. As such, this session seeks to attract studies utilizing isotopic, geochemical, analytical, experimental, mineralogical and/or field approaches, or numerical modelling to unravel the complexity of mineral deposits. Research designs using stable and/or radiogenic isotopes, biogeochemical patterns, mineralogical and petrological analyses, trace element studies, and field mapping pertaining to the understanding of ore-forming processes including geochemical zoning, alteration patterns, and critical metal enrichment are particularly encouraged.

  • 5f: "Innovative Approaches to Sustainable Critical Mineral Recovery and Tracing of Responsible Materials"

    Critical elements/minerals (CM) such as REE, transition metals (TMs) (e.g., Co, Ni, Cu) and macronutrients are essential to the world economy and low carbon transition. As the demand for these resources soars, high-grade ores are becoming increasingly scarce. Alternative sources of CMs that can be mined sustainably are therefore needed. 

    In this context, large low-grade deposits such as (ultra)mafic TM deposits, emerge as a viable alternative, as do mineral-rich wastes from mining, industry and construction. Some of these natural and waste materials can also serve as feedstock for carbon mineralization (capturing) processes, further reducing the economic and environmental costs. 

    The valorisation of low grade and waste materials, however, has multiple challenges, including technical aspects (material performance, extraction/recovery), contamination, and ingrained economic, social and regulatory barriers.  With an ever-evolving knowledge of the environmental and health impact of mining and industrial waste, the ability to trace back the origin of materials and their production chains, with tools such as isotopic or geochemical fingerprinting, also becomes critical.  

    This session invites submissions from field, laboratory and modelling studies focusing on: CM occurrence in low grade and waste materials; geoengineering aspects of sustainable recovery and separation; (bio)geochemical, mineralogical, petrological studies of low grade and waste materials (including legacy wastes) and their environmental behaviour (pre or post disposal); novel applications of isotopic or geochemical fingerprinting to trace mining and industrial waste; and  geoengineering aspects of carbon mineralization in these materials. Open discussions on resource management, processing and environmental as well as social impact, are also encouraged.

     

  • 5g: "Recent Advances in Geochemistry for Carbon Dioxide Storage, and Utilization in the Subsurface"

    The primary obstacle in climate change mitigation is the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in the atmosphere, a byproduct of anthropogenic activities. While the curtailment of CO2 emissions is crucial, it may not suffice to restrict global warming within the 1.5 °C or 2 °C threshold stipulated by the Paris Agreement. Consequently, the implementation of negative emission technologies, capable of active CO2 extraction from the atmosphere and its subsequent permanent storage in geological formations, becomes imperative. Various methodologies have been suggested for this purpose, including bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, enhanced weathering, ocean fertilization, and direct air capture and storage. Each method presents distinct potentials, costs, risks, and co-benefits for both the environment and society.

    This session will delve into multiple facets of CO2 removal and geological storage, spanning from fundamental science to practical applications. We invite contributions addressing: natural analogs and field experiments, assessment of storage capacity, injectivity, and containment, geochemical and geophysical modeling, mineral trapping and dissolution, laboratory studies, microbial processes, utilization of industrial wastes and by-products, and valorization of carbonated materials. We also welcome research exploring the environmental, social, and policy implications of CO2 removal and storage, such as public acceptance, regulation, governance, and ethics.

  • 5h: "Strategies of Nuclear Waste and Infrastructure Management towards Decarbonization Efforts in the Energy Sector"

    According to the most recent IAEA Climate Change and Nuclear Power report, nuclear power is among the lowest carbon energy technologies, and potentially an important contributor to a fully decarbonized power system.

    This report has revitalised study of the mineralogical, geochemical, and hydrogeological aspects of nuclear waste forms and their long-term storage, and investigation into advanced reactor designs like Gen IV and small modular reactors with high burnup nuclear fuels. Therefore, the following key research areas have come (back) into focus:

    • Analysis of the evolving properties and long-term performance of waste forms, such as spent nuclear fuel, glasses, ceramics, glass-ceramics, concrete, and geopolymers, throughout their expected disposal life-cycle.
    • Nuclear fuel, uranium mining process, fuel fabrication and the behaviour of spent fuel.
    • Mineralogical, mechanical, chemical and hydrological transformations within the various components of a multi-barrier system, especially at materials interfaces, including reactive transport of radionuclides.
    • Adsorption of radionuclides onto mineral phases in multi-barrier systems, the host rock and natural environment, as well as the development of secondary phases, i.e. redox transformations and solid-solutions.
    • Biodegradation and radiation effects that contribute to the long-term performance of waste forms.

    In this session, we welcome contributions that further our understanding of these and other related processes and parameters. We aim to bring together researchers working on experimental and modelling studies at various temporal and spatial scales, ranging from molecular to the macro level and at field scales.

    Conveners

    Sarah Saslow

    Sarah Finkeldei

    Manuel Vejar

    Gordon Thorogood

    Frances Elisa Zengotita

    Agathe Bourchy

    Matthew Asmussen

    Jim Neeway

06 | THEME 06: FRONTIERS IN ANALYTICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

Advances in analytical methods and computational techniques empower geochemists to tackle increasingly complex scientific challenges. These advances, spanning experimental and sample analysis instrumentation, as well as numerical approaches, modeling, and data processing, offer an unparalleled capability to address problems over a wide range of scales from atomic though nano-micro to whole-planet. Sessions within this theme will showcase emerging frontiers in analytical and computational approaches in geochemical research. We welcome session proposals that focus on the development, application, and scientific outcomes of novel methods across all sub-disciplines of Earth and planetary sciences, spanning from elemental and isotopic analysis in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments, to laboratory experiments, and computational techniques to simulate geochemical processes, and extract information from complex datasets. Sessions aim to draw attention to various aspects of geochemistry, including atom-, nano-, micro-, and meso-scale analyses and simulations, new analytical developments, along with advancements in integrating data resources from various sources and stewardship.
  • 6a: "Novel approaches (MAPLe) from the nano- to macrolevels for solving geologic issues and events"

    Our literature is heavily populated with contributions of either simple/singular computer simulations/models or geochemical studies. These are supposed to explain our complex Earth System since its inception 4.5 billion years ago.

    We are looking for contributions that embrace models consisting of multiple (M) archives (A), proxies (P), localities (L), and extraneous (e) parameters (MAPLe) to explain the exponentially difficult concepts associated with Earth Systems spanning the Archean to Anthropocene. Thus, contributions from all rock systems/sequences are welcome to help explain their origin and history and how it relates to the formation of our home planet and the evolution of life with its many intricate changes through geologic time. Fresh ideas, outlooks and innovative proposals are welcome, especially from early career scientists and researchers.

  • 6b: "Investigating nanogeochemistry with emerging analytical techniques; from anthropogenic to geological systems"

    Elemental geochemical cycles are significantly influenced by nano- and sub-micron scale particles. Geogenic nanoscale materials play important roles in a variety of systems including but not limited to atmospheric chemistry, nutrient cycling, water chemistry, sediment budgets, dispersion of economically-valuable minerals, and soil chemistry. While geogenic nanoparticles (NPs) dominate global fluxes, the emergence of engineered and incidental NPs is increasingly concerning in localized (e.g. urban) environmental systems. Due to their small size and higher fraction of surface atoms, both natural and anthropogenic NPs have increased reactivity compared to larger particles, often resulting in unique elemental behavior and potential for negative effects on biota.

    Measuring NPs in environmental samples is challenging, and obtaining accurate measurements is critical to understanding their full impact on geochemical cycles. Particle number/concentration, mass/size distributions, and elemental/mineralogical composition are all vital to characterizing NP populations. Recent advances in analytical techniques have made all of these measurements possible, however knowledge gaps remain as to their accuracy. Techniques including field flow fractionation (FFF) and single particle ICP-MS can characterize NPs in aqueous suspension, while aerosol particle sizers can evaluate airborne NP populations in situ, and microscopies such as TEM can measure NPs in solid matrices. Closing knowledge gaps in the science of measuring nanoparticles will directly influence the ability to understand their geochemical significance. As such, this session invites contributions that advance the measurement of nanoparticles in environmental systems, and/or contribute to our understanding of nanogeochemical cycles.

  • 6c: "Quantitative and computational methods in igneous geochemistry"

    Computational geochemical modeling is used to explore problems related to every aspect of magmatism, from magma generation and transport in the mantle and crust, to magma evolution and emplacement in the crust, and even eruptive processes. The growing toolkit available to igneous geochemists is enabling us to better understand complex igneous systems and how geochemical trends arise from this complexity. This session invites contributions that apply all kinds of numerical modeling, from thermodynamic and forward methods, to inverse and Monte Carlo approaches, to statistical analysis and dimensionality reduction techniques to elucidate magmatic behavior across tectonic settings. New model developments and approaches are welcome, as are new and updated applications of existing models to new magmatic questions.

  • 6d: "Numerical approaches from molecular to field scale for subsurface heat and mass transfer"

    Subsurface heat and mass transfer plays an important role in subsurface activities. In this session, topics related with heat and mass transfer behaviors from molecular to field scale are most welcome which include but not limited to: (1) Molecular simulation approaches includes force field development, interfacial structure, chemical reaction, et al; (2) Simulation techniques for heat and mass flow in porous media including lattice Boltzmann method, pore network model, et al; (3) Simulation approaches in field scale including multiphase flow, phase change, fault, et al. (4) Schemes and code development for subsurface simulation.

  • 6e: "Advanced Synchrotron X-ray techniques for Geochemistry"

    Over the past 30-plus years, use of synchrotron-based x-ray techniques has revolutionized many scientific disciplines, including biology, medicine, materials engineering, and environmental research among others. In addition, progress in accelerator technology during the last decade has paved the way for multiple orders of magnitude increases in x-ray brilliance typically only experienced once in a generation. The new design of synchrotron storage rings coupled with new feature beamlines that take advantage of these magnificent increases in facility brilliance offer transformative opportunities for the hydro-bio-geochemical sciences to address existing and new scientific challenges.

    Geochemical samples often come with heterogeneous composition and characteristics which are impossible to evaluate without x-ray tools. Synchrotrons offer a variety of X-ray instruments, which offer different capabilities including high spatial resolution, flexible sample environment, sensitivity, and additional imaging modalities. These instruments have served many science communities to provide comprehensive structural and functional analysis of a large array of specimens that range in size from single microorganisms to soil cores to living plants.

    This session welcomes contributions from researchers that have used synchrotron radiation to make advances in geochemistry and related fields as well as contributions that describe established or planned synchrotron beamline capabilities that help to make advancements in these fields.

  • 6f: "Advancement and Innovations in Reference Material Development, Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, and Isotope Metrology in Geoscience applications"

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry is essential to geochemical and cosmochemical research. Recent technical innovations and newly developed methodologies for mass spectrometry techniques, such as AMS, TIMS, (LA)-MC-ICP-MS, (LA)-ICP-MS/MS, SIMS, Noble Gas MS, High Resolution IRMS, and others have spawned new applications in diverse fields of Geoscience. For many microbeam instruments (e.g., SIMS, LA-(MC)-ICP-MS), reference materials are necessary for calibration of signal intensities, ion counting detectors or correction of instrumental mass discrimination.  Even where this is not the case (e.g., atom probe tomography), or where instrument responses are largely independent of the composition and form of target matrices, reference materials matched to analysed mineral matrices are necessary for calibration purposes and method validation and the quantification of accuracy and precision.
     
    We invite contributions that emphasize new developments in isotope ratio mass spectrometry, including advances in instrumentation, data treatment and software applications, novel techniques for high precision isotope ratio determination, and development and certification of both non-nuclear and nuclear isotopic reference materials for calibration of isotope ratio measurements (including radiometric ages and related elemental concentrations) and quality control.

  • 6g: "Novel Computational, Data-driven and multiscale approaches for advancing geochemistry"

    This session invites submissions that explore the knowledge-generating power of data science and numerical methods in geochemistry. Welcome topics include quantitative tools to tackle geochemical problems across nano- to macro-scales, inclusive of (but not limited to) quantum mechanics, molecular dynamics, chemical kinetics, biogeochemical processes, hydrodynamics, geodynamics, and planetary dynamics. Methods in statistical learning, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and other numerical methods are increasingly capable of addressing scientific questions that arise in field, laboratory, and simulation work. All works displaying a chosen method in numerical methods or data science as a central tool in generating knowledge are welcome. This session aims to explore the knowledge-generating power of data science methods in and of themselves—either by means of method development or application to a specific scientific question. Another aim of this session is to provide an inclusive opportunity for geoscientists of any background to learn about available computational / data science tools, and to engage with a community actively harnessing the methods to address scientific questions.

  • 6h: "Meeting Technical Challenges of Current and Future Planetary Science and Cosmochemistry"

    The last several years have seen a rapid demand for new techniques for handling and analysis of precious samples from extraterrestrial sources. These include successful return samples from comets, asteroids, and other planetary bodies by the Stardust, Genesis, Hayabusa 1&2 and OSIRIS-REx missions, newly-released and cryogenically-stored Apollo-era soils, and the future return of Martian and lunar samples. Many of these samples are in the form of small sized regolith particles and are thus resolution- and/or atom-limited, requiring new multi-analytical approaches to gain maximum scientific output from a minimal sample volume. Consideration must also be taken to preserve the pristine nature of the samples during storage, preparation, and analysis, minimizing exposure to ambient temperatures and atmosphere. In the case of Martian sample return, planetary protection regulations require initial treatment in a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) environment, and incorporating robust analytical capabilities into such an environment prior to sample sterilization poses a significant technical challenge in the coming years. Furthermore, researchers are finding new applications for machine learning, computationally-intensive statistical analysis methods, and other software approaches to glean results from ever-growing and correlated, multi-instrumental datasets. This session will bring together new research and technical advances related to planetary science and cosmochemistry, highlighting the particular challenges posed by these extraterrestrial samples.

07 | THEME 07: CO-EVOLUTION OF LIFE AND THE EARTH THROUGH DEEP TIME

This theme invites sessions that explore the co-evolution between biological processes, environmental change, and geological evolution from the Precambrian through the Phanerozoic. Potential topics include, but are not limited to,  the evolution of Earth’s long-term habitability; the environmental context of key milestones in the history of life such as the origin of life, the emergence of metabolisms, the rise of animals, and/or extinction events; and the causes and consequences of Earth’s surface oxidation. Also encouraged are sessions relating to the influence of solid-Earth processes and astrophysical phenomena on surface environments and life. We welcome sessions that span a wide range of disciplinary perspectives and methodological approaches, from numerical simulations to field-based studies of ancient environments and modern analogues.
  • 7a: "Nutrient cycling across climatic-oceanic changes and new implications for Phanerozoic biotic crises"

    Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and micronutrient elements, play a key role in sustaining marine primary production and regulating the biological pump of modern and past oceans. Thus, nutrient sources, sinks and recycling can serve as a window into oceanic carbon sinks (especially for organic carbon burial) and carbon cycle perturbations at both short and long-time scales. Importantly, Phanerozoic extinctions are typically accompanied by oscillations in the carbon cycle and Earth's climate, sometimes linked to external triggers such as the occurrence of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Examples include, but are not limited to, the Precambrian-Cambrian, Ordovician-Silurian, Devonian and Permian-Triassic transitions. This session invites contributions that shed further light on the linkage between external triggers, nutrient cycling, carbon cycle and ecosystem collapse across such events. We invite studies spanning from geochemical to paleontological and computational approaches, including both traditional and novel proxies.

  • 7b: "Patterns, drivers and effects of co-evolving biological and environmental change during the Neoproterozoic to Palaeozoic transition"

    The Neoproterozoic (1000-541 Ma) and Paleozoic Eras (541-251 Ma) witnessed global “snowball” Earths, numerous global-scale oxygenation, deoxygenation and mass extinction events, the Cambrian explosion and colonization of land by plants and upheaval of major biogeochemical cycles. Over the past decades there has been a sustained effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of coupled biogeochemical and biotic evolution over this key interval, which have revealed a complex and unresolved history concerning the pattern, drivers and effects of biogeochemical changes that occurred during this time. The goal of this session is to bring together researchers that explore the biotic and geochemical records of the interval spanning the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic. We welcome new contributions that will address the patterns, drivers and effects of co-evolving biological and environmental change during the Neoproterozoic to Palaeozoic transition. Key element cycles (e.g., C-N-O-P-S), big data compilation, novel concepts and modelling approaches are especially welcome.

  • 7c: "Evolution of early life and environments from the Archean to the Proterozoic"

    Life likely arose between 3.5 and 4.5 billion years ago on the early Earth. Preceding this biochemistry was a chemistry not wholly capable of Darwinian evolution, termed ‘prebiotic chemistry’. This prebiotic chemistry originated from (geo-)chemical reactions that occurred on the early Earth, implying that the physicochemical conditions were suited to forming inorganic and organic molecules of increasing complexity required for life. After the origination of life, the geochemistry of the early Earth was substantially affected by the proliferation of microorganisms, as well as by evolving crustal differentiation and plate tectonics. These resulted in significant changes in Earth’s atmospheric chemistry, in its ocean chemistry, and in the weathering and deposition of rocks, exemplified by the oxidation of the Earth’s surface. Ultimately the geochemical processes of the early Earth and of life became coupled, which resulted in the development of nutrient cycles that continuously recycled key biological elements from the lithosphere and led to a co-evolution of the life and environments.

    This session invites contributions in early Earth biogeochemistry, covering topics such as prebiotic geochemistry and the origin of life on the Earth and other planetary bodies, nutrient element supply and cycling on the early Earth and its connection with the origin and early evolution of life, early geochemical evidence for life on Earth, the causes and impacts of the Great Oxidation Event, and the interplay between life, tectonics and the Earth’s surface in the development of nutrient cycles.

  • 7d: "Causes and Consequences of Planetary Habitability: How Can Earth's Long-term Biosphere Inform Our Understanding of Worlds Elsewhere?"

    The co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere has regulated and sustained long-term habitability over much of Earth history. By carefully exploring Earth’s rock record with an interdisciplinary approach, we as a community may glean new insights into the drivers and feedbacks that could foster habitability on planets within and beyond our solar system. We invite submissions that explore how changes in Earth’s surface environments (including but not limited to nutrient cycling, productivity, weathering, and redox dynamics) and solid Earth processes (such as plate tectonics and the formation of large igneous provinces) may have contributed to the initiation and development of the biosphere, as well as submissions that focus on the feedbacks that have sustained the Earth’s four-billion-year habitability. We encourage presentations of case studies drawing from Earth’s rock record, analyses and reinterpretations of global datasets, Earth system models, and open discussions of novel hypotheses regarding Earth’s key milestones. Apart from investigations of the ancient Earth, we also welcome contributions from astrobiology and planetary science perspectives, such as modern analogs, biosignatures, and the development of proxies that show the potential to be utilized on other planets or moons.

  • 7e: "Advances in understanding Cenozoic climate change: Synthesizing and reconciling shifts in surface processes, ecology, atmospheric composition, and seawater chemistry"

    The Cenozoic Era spanned profound and coupled changes in Earth's climate, biogeochemistry, and global ecology. Among many important transitions, the Cenozoic witnessed global cooling and a long-term decline in atmospheric pCO2, shifts in the isotopic and elemental ratios of major ions in seawater, the diversification and expansion of mammalian taxa, changing fluxes from silicate weathering and sulfide oxidation, and a global deepening of the carbonate compensation depth. This session seeks to bring together researchers studying connections among such changes in the Earth system, using the Cenozoic as a case study in which to explore links between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.  We welcome submissions across a broad range of spatial scales (microscopic to global), approaches (isotopic, genomic, theoretical, numerical), samples (rocks, fossils, modern and ancient sediment), and disciplines (geology, surface processes, atmospheric chemistry, biological/chemical/physical oceanography, marine/terrestrial ecology, geobiology). Overall, we solicit all contributions that address connections between the long-term changes that occurred during the Cenozoic or which use Cenozoic climate change to elucidate the positive and negative feedbacks which preserve planetary habitability across geologic time. We especially welcome submissions from early-career researchers and under-represented scientists.

  • 7f: "Long-term Geochemical Trends of the Jurassic-early Cretaceous"

    The Jurassic-early Cretaceous period was marked by tectonic events, volcanism, variations in paleoclimate, and the reconfiguration of paleoceanographic patterns that led to critical changes in ocean redox conditions across many basins. While the availability of geochemical proxy indicators has allowed the global reconstruction of past paleoenvironments, few studies evaluate the long-term evolution of the Jurassic-early Cretaceous geochemical record. To date, the majority of Jurassic studies focus on understanding the intricacies and mechanisms driving short, punctuated intervals, such as the notable Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (TOAE). Similarly, early Cretaceous research is heavily centered around punctuated events that had a profound global impact, such as the Weissert event and OAE 1a.

    This session aims to bring interdisciplinary geochemists together to discuss long-term fluctuations of Earth’s biogeochemical cycle during the Jurassic-early Cretaceous, with a specific focus on closing knowledge gaps within the existing records. We invite laboratory and modelling contributions that expands any significant long-term interval within Jurassic-early Cretaceous geochemical record temporally and spatially, studies that provide an insight on the dynamics and mechanisms governing local and/or global atmosphere-ocean oxygen availability, and geochemical work that broadens our current understand of paleoenvironments globally and/or regionally. We also encourage submissions that apply novel methodologies to tackles outstanding issues within the Jurassic-early Cretaceous period. Lastly, we welcome any collaborative studies and discussions between scientists in academia and industry that will improve our understanding of this important time interval.

  • 7g: "Co-Evolution of Minerals and Life Through Geological Time"

    Geobiology is a young and growing field that embraces interdisciplinary research to better understand the water-life-rock interface where many of the most critical reactions occur on the Earth’s surface. Specifically, life-rock interactions play important roles in environmental change, biogeochemical cycling of elements, and formation of ore deposits. Minerals can provide both beneficial and detrimental effects to microbial life, while microbial life can impact precipitation, dissolution, and transformation of minerals (and rocks) through cellular activity. The co-evolution of rock-life interactions has driven the evolution of the geosphere and biosphere for most of Earth’s history. Strengthening our understanding of this co-evolution from the micro to global scale through interdisciplinary collaborations and research will then help with predicting and mitigating challenges that society is facing and will face with changes in the Earth system moving forward. The goal of this session is to bring together interdisciplinary researchers and/or collaborations to demonstrate the power of working in the field of Geobiology. We encourage abstract submission from anyone whose research intersects at the water-life-rock interface from deep time to modern systems, integrating biologically-focused techniques with those that are traditionally more geochemical and geological, to answer fundamental questions about processes that have driven, are driving, and will drive chemical reactions on the Earth’s surface. The topic includes but is not limited to identification of biosignatures in geological records, laboratory simulation of mineral-life interaction, isotopic biogeochemistry and biogeochemical modeling, and molecular and bioinformatic approaches studying metabolic pathways and evolution.

  • 7h: "Geochemistry of (Bio)chemical Sediments: Paleo-proxies or Paleo-paradoxes?"

    Over the past 4.5 Ga, the dynamic interaction of the lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere has cultivated various environments suitable for life on Earth. Yet, defining paleoenvironment physicochemical characteristics, biological transitions, and the effect of continental weathering on oceanic chemistry and its sedimentary documentation remains challenging. Aquatic (bio)chemical sediments—carbonates, microbialites, phosphates, cherts, shales, and banded iron formations—capture Earth's environmental history. Enhanced analytical techniques and new proxies have deepened, yet complicated, our understanding of ancient and contemporary depositional contexts. This session aims to be a nexus for insights from field geology, sedimentology, trace element and isotope geochemistry, petrography, and geobiology that aid in better utilization of geochemical proxies in (bio)chemical sediments. We welcome contributions that help to reconstruct paleo-environments, pinpoint redox changes, elucidate seawater chemistry, and explore critical markers, especially during crucial climatic and environmental changes. Also welcome are studies addressing potentially confounding factors such as diagenesis and metamorphism that may perturb or create geochemical excursions in the rock record. The spotlight will be on examining (bio)chemical sediments across aquatic (paleo)-environments, seeking a universal understanding of the co-evolutionary tale of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere from the Archean to the present. Importantly, we also support open debates on the shortcomings of current proxies and how modeling and data mining techniques might be used to close the gaps that turn paleo-proxies into paradoxes.

  • 7i: "Geochemical proxy development for paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic research"

    Analysis of deep-time climatic and environmental variation is paramount to progress in understanding fundamental questions of Earth System feedbacks and sensitivity to perturbations including extinctions, large igneous provinces, ice ages, hyperthermalism, as well as oceanic acidification and anoxia. However, reconstruction of deep-time climatic and environmental change from sedimentary records remains challenging. New tools are needed to investigate poorly known aspects of paleoenvironmental systems as well as to test interpretations made using established paleoenvironmental proxies. This session is broadly open to studies aimed at calibration or demonstration of geochemical proxies for reconstruction of deep-time environmental and climatic evolution. For example, recent research has demonstrated the utility of elemental proxies (B/Ga, Sr/Ba, and S/TOC) to assess salinity in ancient shale formations (Wei and Algeo, 2020, GCA). This study has received significant attention, demonstrating a strong interest in further development of salinity proxies for use in paleoenvironmental studies. Given the potential power and unique perspective provided by elemental salinity proxies in paleoenvironmental analysis, further studies are needed—both to test methodological aspects of these proxies, and to further investigate their application to various paleodepositional systems. The scope of this session includes novel proxy development as well as new constraints on existing geochemical proxy records. Topics include proxy calibration in modern or diagenetic systems (e.g., GEOTRACES), experimental constraints, data-model calibrations, and novel proxy applications in the ancient sedimentary record. We encourage submissions with innovative insights regarding mechanisms, feedbacks, or quantitative thresholds driving ancient geochemical perturbations and their relationship with environmental, climatic, and biological evolution.

08 | THEME 08: EARTH'S ACTIVE SURFACE: FROM WEATHERING TO CLIMATE IMPACTS

This theme addresses the interactions between weathering processes and geochemical fluxes in the Earth’s surface environments and the impact of tectonics, biological evolution, and climate on these phenomena. The theme focuses on the bio-geochemical and physical processes that shape the Earth's surface environments, global elemental cycles and climate across various temporal and spatial scales. We encourage sessions covering geomorphological evolution, physical and chemical weathering processes, bio-geochemical exchanges and elemental/isotope fluxes through the critical zone, and their links to past and current climate change. Contributions can be based on modern observations (at individual sites or from big data analysis), experiments, sedimentological records as well as development of new geochemical proxies and novel modelling frameworks. Sessions focusing on deep-time processes as well as on shorter-time scales, including on anthropogenic impacts, will all be considered.
  • 8a: "Alkalinity cycling in coastal sediments: natural processes and CO2 capture methods"

    Alkalinity exerts an important control on Earth’s climate by increasing the CO2 storage capacity of seawater. Coastal sediments are significant sources of alkalinity, and this ecosystem service is increasingly obtaining attention. Recently, we have gained new insights in the environmental conditions that regulate the alkalinity cycle and hot-spots of alkalinity production in the marine environment are being found. However, we have a limited understanding of how anthropogenic activities disrupt ecosystems and processes that generate alkalinity, despite the coastal zone being intensively used. Meanwhile, active addition of alkalinity to the ocean in order to increase the seawater’s carbon storage capacity has been suggested as a CO2 drawdown technique. Proposed methods span from technology-oriented approaches such as electrochemical generation of base from seawater, to techniques such as enhanced mineral weathering, which mimic natural processes. Although ocean alkalinization is promising for removing CO2 from the atmosphere, important questions remain regarding the feasibility, efficiency and ecosystem impacts of the different methods proposed.

    This session welcomes contributions on production and consumption of alkalinity in coastal sediments, through natural processes and ocean alkalinization techniques, aiming to promote an integrated view of alkalinity cycling. We welcome presentations on topics ranging from measurements of processes in the alkalinity cycle, how they are controlled and interact, to modelling efforts, and studies of the efficiency and ecological effects of ocean alkalinization. We also encourage contributions on methodological developments that improve research on the alkalinity cycle. Furthermore, we encourage discussions led by delegates from different career stages and diverse backgrounds.

  • 8b: "The evolution of Earth’s surface alkalinity budget and climate: from deep time to the human epoch"

    Large-scale changes to Earth’s surface alkalinity budget can strongly impact atmospheric CO2 concentrations with corresponding impacts on planetary climate1. Balance in the carbon cycle is maintained through long-term stabilising feedbacks—foremost the silicate weathering feedback, wherein chemical weathering leads to the production of alkalinity at rates that depend on CO2 concentrations2,3. In the marine environment, the production of alkalinity drives the precipitation and deposition of carbonate minerals and their removal through burial in marine sediments, which is the ultimate sink for atmospheric CO24. Moreover, given contemporary human-driven climate warming, new approaches are being developed which leverage these natural biogeochemical processes to enhance alkalinity production and increase atmospheric CO2 drawdown. Insight into how Earth’s surface alkalinity budget has evolved through time as well as it’s sensitivity to human perturbations is, therefore, central to reconstructing biogeochemical and climate dynamics in the Earth system in past, present, and future scenarios.

    Here we seek contributions that link dynamics in Earth’s alkalinity budget to the response of the Earth-life-climate system. In particular we welcome submission of multidisciplinary studies from various ecosystem types (from the continents to the oceans) and from deep time to the modern, including contemporary climate change mitigation approaches. We encourage contributions that employ applications of inorganic and organic geochemistry, microbiology, chemical and biological oceanography, experimental and analytical isotope geochemistry, modelling, and geoengineering.

    1Middelburg et al., (2020)

    2Zeebe & Caldeira, (2008)

    3Walker et al., (1981)

    4Berner (2004)

  • 8c: "Silicate weathering in a rising CO2 world: Lessons from the past and implications for the future"

    Weathering of silicate rocks regulate atmospheric CO2 and hence, act as a thermostat over geological timescales. It remains a crucial process in the context of global climate and Earth’s habitability. Additionally, silicate weathering supplies essential nutrients to the ocean, which fundamentally impacts global bio-geochemical cycles. Much work has been done to quantitatively estimate modern silicate weathering fluxes and CO2 consumption rates based on riverwater chemistry. However, studies of weathering in geological past, especially in naturally induced high CO2 environments are sparse but are critical to advance our overall understanding of the feedback between silicate weathering and global climate, which has implications for future habitability of our planet.

    The goal of this session is to better understand the dynamics of silicate weathering under different atmospheric conditions over Earth’s history including specific conditions related to the extreme perturbation in global carbon cycles and climatic changes. This session invites weathering studies from natural (modern and ancient) and/or experimental settings, over different spatial (e.g., whole rock versus mineralogical) and temporal scales, dealing with but not limited to mineralogical, geochemical, radiogenic and metal stable isotopes as well as computational techniques. Contributions related to the development and refinement of geochemical and isotopic tracers to constrain congruent vs. incongruent weathering, role of secondary minerals, and oxidative weathering are encouraged.

  • 8d: "Accelerating carbon migration from atmosphere to lithosphere: Engineered CO2 mineralization"

    Anthropogenic CO2 removal has been identified as a key technology to keep temperature increase below 2 oC and maintain a liveable earth. One of the feasible methods is moving CO2 from atmosphere to lithosphere through engineered CO2 mineralization. CO2 mineralization is a natural process, which transforms CO2 to carbonate minerals in alkaline rocks (e.g., mafic/ultramafic rocks, basalt rocks). This process takes places in various scenarios, such as in soil, ocean, igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, etc. Engineered CO2 mineralization accelerates the natural CO2 mineralization through artificial enhanced weathering in ultramafic mine tailings, alkaline industrial waste, subsurface basalt reservoirs, etc. Considering large amounts of alkaline rocks in earth, the engineered CO2 mineralization has the potential to offset anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere.

    This session aims to feature CO2 removal technology accelerated by engineered CO2 mineralization. This session includes theoretical research for unravelling reaction pathways of CO2 mineralization or experimental research deciphering optimal physicochemical conditions to optimize the rates of CO2 mineralization. This session welcomes research on scenarios of both surface and underground CO2 mineralization. This session covers engineered CO2 mineralization in multiple medias, such as soil, oceans, and rocks with different mineralogy.

  • 8e: "Biogeochemical cycling in river deltas: mechanisms of carbon, nutrient, and trace element cycling that modulate the global carbon cycle"

    Burial of organic carbon in marine sediments is a critical knob that tunes the global carbon cycle, yet our understanding of the processes involved in its transport, transformation, preservation, and interaction with other biogeochemical constituents in the coastal ocean remain poorly understood. Annually, rivers deliver 110-230 megatonnes of particulate organic carbon to the global ocean. This carbon can either be buried and sequestered from the atmosphere or undergo oxidation to CO2 due to sediment transport and resuspension. River deltas are known to be important sites for burial of reactive elements, including organic carbon, but are notoriously difficult to study, leading to uncertainties in carbon burial estimates. Additionally, climate change and anthropogenic activity are impacting biogeochemical cycling in river deltas. For example, permafrost thaw is increasing export of ancient organic carbon from Arctic rivers, and dam and levee construction are reducing the sediment and organic carbon supply to river deltas, with unknown consequences for long-term carbon burial. At first order, the organic carbon burial in deltas is influenced by coastal bathymetry, physical transport processes, and heterotrophic activity. Furthermore, the fate of reactive species in coastal sediments depends on interactions among early diagenetic processes, including redox reactions, carbonate and silica dissolution, authigenic mineral formation, and microbial processing. This session aims to highlight research probing the mechanisms of transport, burial, and transformation of organic carbon and associated reactive species in river deltas. We invite studies using field measurements, lab-based experiments, and modeling approaches covering timescales ranging from the present to the geologic past.

  • 8f: "Carbon and Nutrient Cycling Through the Critical Zone"

    The Critical Zone hosts a dynamic balance of physical, chemical and biological factors that influence the fate and transport of carbon and nutrients. Numerical modeling approaches have become increasingly instrumental in unraveling the complexities of these interactions, while novel and expanding datasets guide and test these simulations, highlighting areas of uncertainty where further study is needed. This combination of model and data driven inquiry is necessary to understand how carbon and nutrient cycles will respond to the consequences of a changing climate across a range of timescales. We welcome contributions tackling these important themes, including: the role of weathering and mineral solubility in nutrient release and carbon sequestration; the impact of land use change and changing hydroclimate on carbon and nutrient dynamics; insights into microbial and plant-mediated elemental cycling in the Critical Zone; development of numerical modeling tools advancing simulation of these Critical Zone processes.

  • 8g: "Sedimentary recycling by Earth surface processes and its role in global biogeochemical cycles"

    Sediments and sedimentary rocks host major carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur reservoirs, among other bio-essential and redox-active elements. In many cases, these elements can be hosted in reactive phases that initiate weathering and set the net effect of sediment recycling on the composition of Earth’s ocean and atmosphere. More recalcitrant phases in sedimentary rocks can contribute to detrital mineral assemblages and survive multiple cycles of deposition and erosion. Here, we solicit contributions that address sedimentary recycling processes at Earth’s surface and their implications for global biogeochemical cycles and the interpretation of the rock record. Relevant topics include, but are not limited to, global modeling studies, rock record observations, isotopic and trace element studies of river dissolved and particulate loads, soil profile studies, reactive transport modeling, and laboratory/ incubation experiments.

  • 8h: "Exploring feedbacks between tectonically active systems and global biogeochemical cycles"

    Active and ancient volcanic provinces occupy a small portion of the Earth’s surface, but disproportionally impact biogeochemical fluxes of streams, groundwaters and oceans through enhanced water-rock interactions. The reactive nature of fluids and extrusive materials sourced from volcanoes and mid-ocean ridges translates into their rapid weathering and alteration. Volcanic gases and hydrothermal systems can increase weathering rates, thus amplifying the feedback between volcanoes and global biogeochemical cycles. Hydrothermal fluids facilitate the accessibility of critical metals through transport from deep in the Earth’s crust. Low temperature alteration of oceanic crust can modify ocean alkalinity over geologic timescales, thus playing an important role in the geologic carbon cycle. This session invites contributions from field, laboratory, and modeling studies that explore fluid-rock interactions in volcanic, geothermal and mid-ocean ridge systems, pedogenesis in volcanic soils, delivery of metal and nutrient fluxes from volcanic regions and modern or ancient observations to elucidate volcanic imprints on biogeochemical processes in the Earth’s history.

  • 8i: "Geochemical kinetics, critical zone, and beyond: A session to honor the impact of the work of Dr. Susan Brantley"

    Geochemical reactions between minerals and fluids at and near Earth's surface release and recycle solutes that support life and influence water quality, drive changes in rock properties that influence hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, and serve as a model system that can provide the basis for solutions to pressing environmental and energy problems. The study of the rates and mechanisms of these reactions span detailed laboratory experiments, field data collection and analysis, and sophisticated numerical simulation. Dr. Susan Brantley spent her career elucidating the rates and mechanisms of mineral-fluid interactions, advancing our fundamental understanding of how these reactions shape the near-surface environment through connections with other near surface processes and was an integral part of the definition of a new earth science discipline: Critical Zone Science. This session will celebrate the career of Dr. Brantley by highlighting advances and cutting-edge research in mineral-fluid interactions and Critical Zone processes.  We welcome submissions from collaborators, former students, and anyone whose research has been inspired or advanced by the work of Dr. Brantley.

09 | THEME 09: BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES AND THEIR SIGNATURES

The interplay between biological and non-biological processes is key to shaping elemental cycles on Earth and potentially other habitable worlds. Microbial activity has major impacts on the biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems and has also defined the chemistry of the Earth’s surface, as well as shallow and deep subsurface realms over geological times, often creating conditions that led to the proliferation and diversification of life. Also, traces of these geosphere-biosphere interactions can be found throughout the geological record. This theme invites sessions that will address such interactions, with a possible focus on extremophiles, ecosystem functionalities and adaptability, the identification of biosignatures, and/or the impact of microbe-mineral interactions on both modern and ancient biogeochemical cycles. Also invited are sessions that discuss metabolic characteristics of new phylogenetic lineages and deep branches of the tree of life, the evolution of microbial traits throughout earth's history, or the habitability and potential biosignatures in other planetary systems. Integrative approaches in geobiology, biogeochemistry, and astrobiology including field campaigns, incubation/cultivation and laboratory experiments, and studies relying on advanced tools such as molecular ‘omics’, isotope geochemistry, chemical/isotopic imaging or data-based modeling, and those exploring new frontiers including the critical zone, deep biosphere, cryosphere, extreme habitats, analogue sites, and extraterrestrial environments are encouraged.
  • 9a: "Subsurface Microbial Communities in Diverse Environments: Biogeochemistry, Evolution,and Potential Applications"

    Microbial communities in subsurface environments obtain energy using a network of different metabolisms and substrates that are still being discovered. Redox conditions and substrate availability influence the presence and abundance of different metabolic pathways. Recent research has advanced our knowledge of the distribution and environmental interactions of subsurface microbial communities, and their potential to be used to address pressing global challenges, such as sustainable energy production, carbon sequestration, and other purposes. We invite abstracts that investigate subsurface microbial community dynamics from all types of subsurface environments as it relates to different practical applications, understanding
    biogeochemical cycling, and the evolution of the subsurface biosphere. Study systems could include, but are not limited to, fossil fuel deposits, hydrothermal environments, tectonic boundaries, continental margins, carbon sequestration sites, northern peatlands, coastal wetlands, or anoxic soils and sediments.

  • 9b: "Biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in modern and ancient environments"

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential elements to all life. From the past to the present, N and/or P are often considered  two principle nutrients that limit primary production , organic carbon burial, and ultimately atmospheric oxygenation. This, in turn, has significantly influenced the origin of life and early biological evolution. The bioavailability of N and P in various aquatic environments is determined by the balance between inputs and outputs, which are intimately linked to ambient environmental conditions such as redox, pH and temperature. To better understand N and P cycles and their implications for Earth's habitability, this session invites observational, experimental and modelling contributions that address N and P cycling in both ancient and modern environments. We welcome submissions presenting novel geochemical, mineralogical, and biological investigations of N and P cycling from past to present; utilizing laboratory experiments and field investigations to uncover the geo- and bio-controls that govern N and P budgets and their behaviors in different environments; employing numerical models to simulate the connection of N and P cycling and the evolution of Earth surface systems. This session also welcomes contributions from extraterrestrial fields, which explore the potential habitability of other planets and celestial bodies. We aim to bring together scientists from diverse fields that are interested in the biogeochemical cycling of N and P, to comprehensively understand the role of N and P in shaping the habitability of planets.

  • 9c: "Unraveling Microbe-Mineral Interactions: Insights Across Diverse Systems and Scales"

    Microorganisms are recognized to alter mineral structure through dissolution and precipitation reactions which may include a change in redox state in many cases profoundly impacting various environments—ranging from soils to deep subsurface ecosystems. Beyond the environmental influence, these interactions can also have a significant impact on the microbial life driving the reactions impacting bioavailability of carbon and nutrients, trace metals, and for some organisms, sources and sinks for electrons. While these interactions have been observed, the mechanisms underpinning these interactions with minerals are not always well understood. This session invites abstracts investigating the enigmatic interplay between microorganisms and minerals, illuminating underlying mechanisms across domains of life, geological time, and scales (molecules to systems) advancing out understanding of microbe mineral interactions.

  • 9d: "Organic geochemistry from ancient molecules to exoplanets"

    Organic geochemistry encompasses topics that range from biogeochemistry to climate science, microbial ecology to petroleum geochemistry, and archaeology to extraterrestrial environments. The field lies at the intersection of isotope geochemistry, high and low temperature geochemistry, paleogeology and paleooceanography, and astrobiology. It has depended critically on analytical innovations, advances in experimental techniques, and the acquisition of unique and difficult to obtain samples. This session invites presentations in all areas of organic geochemistry with the intention of nurturing a network of scientists who rely on organic perspectives and approaches in geochemistry.

  • 9e: "Biomineralization and Geobiology: The intersection between life and minerals"

    Biomineralization and Geobiology: The intersection between life and minerals

    Since the dawn of life, biological processes and minerals have been inextricably linked and have shaped the story of Earth’s surface. Biominerals, defined as minerals that would otherwise not occur without biological processes at play, serve as skeletons and shells for living organisms, reservoirs of nutrients and elements critical to geochemical cycles, inspiration for materials science, agents for fossilization, and even as hosts for paleoenvironmental proxies. Their importance spans the tree of life across modern and deep time.

    This session seeks to bring together biomineralogists, biogeochemists, and geobiologists working an array of topics that speak to this interdisciplinary field, including researchers presenting advances in analytical tools to characterize organic-mineral assemblages, interpretations of biomineral-based proxies, biomineral formation mechanisms, characterization of the diversity and abundance of microorganisms forming minerals, and more.

  • 9f: "Charting the New frontiers of Microbiology: from Extremophiles to Astrobiology"

    Microbial diversity and activity are interlocked with and conditioned by differences in biogeochemical settings as observed from the Earth’s surface, to the subsurface and deeper layers. Challenging biogeochemical settings have been continuously providing us with some of the most exciting breakthroughs in microbiology and changing our understanding about life’s diversity and resilience on our planet, and possibly beyond. The study of the most extreme conditions on Earth, particularly from terrestrial analogue sites, provide an essential supporting pillar of Astrobiology, namely for: i) studying the limits of life, ii) obtaining new microbes for astrobiological exposure experiments, iii) analyzing long-term viability and preservation of microbes and biomolecules, iv) technology development and testing for life-detection in space missions, and v) defining and refining planetary protection measures. Many of these points rely on the continued efforts in charting these new frontiers of microbiology.

    We invite abstracts that contribute to these continued efforts by studying new or under-explored extreme environments of relevance for Astrobiology, with a possible focus molecular- and/or cultivation-based approaches and the discovery and study of new microbes, new phylogenetic lineages, community-level studies, or discussions on their metabolic characteristics.

  • 9g: "The coupled C-S-Fe cycles: Present, Deep time, and Beyond the Earth"

    The Earth’s carbon, sulfur, and iron cycles are key components of the biogeochemical systems that regulate planetary climate, nutrient availability, and global productivity. These elements are directly involved in biomass formation and other metabolic functions, including bioenergetics. Diverse S-related and Fe-related microbial metabolisms are tied to CO2 fixation and organic carbon remineralizarion/sequestration, and are key drivers of planetary redox state and climate on geologic time scales. Understanding the coupled C-S-Fe cycles of the present era is key to knowing the ways by which these cycles have tracked and influenced the evolution of Earth’s habitability. Earth's physicochemical evolution through deep time has been investigated using palaeoredox proxies, including Fe speciation, C-S-Fe isotopes, and redox-sensitive trace element concentrations and isotopes. Furthermore, chemical proxies that record diverse microbial processes associated with the C-S-Fe systems are often encountered in biologically mediated carbonate precipitates, banded iron formations, and sedimentary pyrites, and post revelation they may yield valuable information on the biosignatures of the early Earth, and those of potential extraterrestrial locations as well.

    This session aims to provide a platform to deliberate all the recent progress in our understanding of the C-S-Fe cycles in the contexts of biochemical processes within cells/organisms, in the broader Earth System through time, and in association with potential extraterrestrial biosignatures. We welcome contributions that document diverse approaches, including but not limited to modern environmental chemistry, geomicrobiological experiments, geobiology, geochemistry, and numerical simulations/models that add insight into the coupled C-S-Fe cycles on Earth and beyond, from deep time to the present.

10 | THEME 10: GEOCHEMISTRY OF TERRESTRIAL, GROUNDWATER, AND FRESHWATER SYSTEMS

All of the organisms on this planet depend on the biogeochemical cycling of elements and compounds in surface and near surface environments. Thus, understanding not only the details of the inter-related cycles themselves but also the myriad ways that human impacts are altering these cycles is critical to assessing overall ecological health of the planet, including for humans. The biogeochemical cycles of elements in aquatic and terrestrial Earth surface environments are closely coupled with one another and driven by energy and material fluxes between the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and pedosphere. The aim of this theme is to discuss the state of knowledge and current frontiers in the functioning of elemental cycles in the environment, as controlled by hydrological, geochemical, and biological processes, with an emphasis on metals and nutrients. Understanding such cycling requires field- and laboratory-based experimental studies at various spatial scales ranging from global to molecular, as well as their integration with biogeochemical and transport modeling. We encourage submission of sessions with a clear emphasis on one of the following aspects within this theme: (1) processes (e.g., redox reactions, mineral (trans)formation, plant uptake, mobilization, complexation), (2) element cycles (characterization and modeling) past, present and future, (3) systems (e.g., soils, wetlands, aquifers, watersheds), (4) context (e.g., climate change, contamination, anthropogenic influence), or (5) approach (e.g., isotope analysis, modeling, spectroscopy, in situ and remote sensing). We also anticipate synergies with other proposed Themes, including Cross-cutting Theme 14: Geochemistry Informing the Public and Policy for a Better World.
  • 10a: "The Cold Region Critical Zone in Transition: Impacts on Soil Biogeochemistry and Water Quality"

    Global warming disproportionately affects ecosystems of the high-latitude and high-elevation cold regions. The Critical Zone in cold regions comprises components that are particularly vulnerable to warming – snow cover, seasonal frost, and permafrost – as well as soil biota adapted to cold temperatures. Changes in cold regions’ biogeochemistry, hydrology and hydrochemistry are connected to climate feedbacks through greenhouse gas emissions. Research on how cold region microorganisms respond to shifts in environmental conditions is of particular importance for understanding how a warming climate would affect the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nutrients, metals, and pollutants in the Earth’s cold regions. Meanwhile, warming facilitates the expansion of agriculture, urban growth, and access to natural resources, further adding to the anthropogenic pressures on the cold region ecosystems. The complex interconnection of hydro-bio-geochemical processes in cold regions poses multiple challenges to their realistic representation in earth system models. The cold regions’ Critical Zone therefore requires the integration of process-based investigations with multiscale monitoring and modeling tools. This session focuses on interdisciplinary research that advances our predictive understanding of the biogeochemical processes, microbe-plant interactions, and water quality in cold regions. We welcome presentations that provide new insights into adapted biological activities, hydrogeochemical processes and connectivity in the cold region Critical Zone, changes in carbon and nutrient cycling due to climate warming. We particularly encourage the presentations of newly developed laboratory/field methodologies and coupled experimental and modelling approaches that address the impacts of current and future climate warming and land use change on cold region environments.

  • 10b: "Tracer methods and applications to explore physical and biogeochemical processes in water"

    Recent advances in analytical techniques and modeling have opened the door to new applications of tracers in hydrology, oceanography, ice core science, environmental studies, and at interfaces between the hydrosphere and other parts of the Earth system. For example, portable and field-operable devices and sampling systems now provide unprecedented insight into temporal and spatial variabilities of fluids and of important processes in hydrology in near real-time; lab-based analytical advances have increased the potential reach of inert noble gas radionuclides (39Ar, 37Ar, 85Kr, 81Kr) to date a wide range of environmental samples; new techniques to precisely measure rare isotopes in fluids (e.g., clumped O2, N2, CH417O, 3H, noble gas isotopes) provide quantitative constraints about sources and processes; high-throughput environmental DNA analyses reveal unexpected hydrological connections and biophysical processes; and tracer-enabled models provide deeper insight into natural tracer variance in space and time, and create new opportunities for data-model evaluation. These advances have led to progress in groundwater hydrology, chemical oceanography, environmental research, paleoreconstruction, limnology, atmospheric chemistry, volcanology, and other fields.

    This session invites contributions on method developments and novel applications involving tracers in water – groundwater, rivers, lakes, oceans, ice, and other fluids – or at the interfaces between water and the solid Earth or atmosphere. Contributions involving novel analytical techniques and/or tracer-enabled modeling (e.g., ranging from idealized box models to real-time updated groundwater models to GCMs) are encouraged.

  • 10c: "The competition is heating up – How climate change impacts biogeochemistry of nutrients and metals"

    Soluble elements and molecules of biological interest can be transferred from the soil or sediment solution to the solid interface, taken up by microorganisms and roots, or remain in solution and eventually be leached. As long as nutrients and metals are soluble or loosely sorbed, they are susceptible to biological (re)cycling. However, many nutrients (like phosphate and ammonium) and metals have high affinity to (hydr)oxides and minerals and sequester to the solid phase through practically irreversible sorption or precipitate, becoming (bio)unavailable.

    Temperature influences solid-solution partitioning, and according to the thermodynamic sorption properties of nutrients and metals, temperature oscillations will make either sorption or desorption more favorable. Likewise, elevated temperatures enhance rates of biological recycling (e.g., enzymatic activity), enhancing organic matter decomposition/mineralization, and enriching the solution with nutrients. Consequently, temperature alterations, particularly in conjunction with extreme events, may lead to contradictory impacts on chemical constituents. Climate changes can impact elements on the molecular level, ultimately altering their regional and global fluxes.

    This session welcomes contributions that address the impacts of increasing temperatures on nutrients and metal geochemistry and/or biogeochemistry; emphasis on the competitive dynamics shaping their fate is encouraged. Contributions employing field, laboratory and/or theoretical observations across various scales, from molecular to global, are welcome, as well as, submissions that investigate the implications for ecosystem resilience, agricultural production, food chains, or toxicity.

  • 10d: "Observing and modeling biogeochemistry in rapidly changing coastal ecosystems"

    Coastal ecosystems are rapidly changing due to compounding effects of natural and anthropogenic stressors, such as climate change, sea level rise, hydrologic intensification, and land development. These processes interact to create spatially and temporally dynamic gradients of redox and salinity that control the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, metals, and contaminants and their transport from terrestrial to open water systems. A better understanding of these biogeochemical processes in evolving coastal ecosystems requires innovative approaches that leverage observational and experimental data to generate predictive models that represent coastal systems across broad spatial scales.

     

    This session invites contributions that investigate biogeochemical processes in marine and freshwater coastal systems from observational, experimental, and/or modeling perspectives. Topics include but are not limited to: biophysical drivers of geochemical processes, nutrient cycling, and greenhouse gas emissions; impacts of plant function on geochemical processes; and geochemical reactions that modulate the storage, transport, and export of particulates and solutes across the terrestrial-aquatic interface. We also welcome innovative modeling approaches that explore interactions between vegetation, hydrology, and geochemical processes for coastal systems, and/or incorporate data from laboratory experiments or field manipulations.

  • 10e: "Biogeochemistry of natural organic matter in aquatic and terrestrial environments"

    Aquatic and terrestrial organic matter represent significant stores of carbon, and thus processes that control turnover of these pools are critical for understanding global biogeochemical cycles across different time scales. For example, changes in vegetation quality and quantity, temperature, and moisture are shifting the biogeochemical processes that regulate soil organic matter stabilization and destabilization in ecosystems world-wide. These changes in terrestrial-derived organic matter are potentially altering inputs into aquatic environments. Within the ocean floor, organic matter from both land and the upper ocean is subjected to further processing, where labile components are oxidized to their inorganic constituents and returned to the water column, leaving the more refractory material to be preserved. A fraction of organic matter is also transformed into dissolved form which can re-enter the water column. Understanding the transformation of organic matter during early diagenesis in marine sediments is critical to better understanding the linkages between the short-term aquatic carbon cycle and the long-term geologic carbon cycle. We aim to bring together researchers studying the biogeochemistry of natural organic matter in diverse ecosystems and using various techniques and approaches. We welcome submissions from scientists using diverse methods (experimental and modeling) and those interested in taking cross-cutting and multidisciplinary approaches. This session aims to advance our understanding of organic matter dynamics in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as aquatic-terrestrial boundaries, with the overall goal of gaining a more holistic understanding of the connection between terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical processes.

  • 10f: "Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange at the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface: Hydrological, Biogeochemical, and Ecological Implications"

    The intricate relationship between groundwater and surface water exchange at the terrestrial-aquatic interface (TAI) governs the critical transport of solutes and pollutants. This dynamic interplay significantly impacts biogeochemical cycles and the composition of ecological communities. To manage water resources and deepen our scientific understanding, it is imperative to gain a comprehensive knowledge of the hydrological controls and biogeochemical processes taking place at the TAI. We encourage presentations centered on the following key aspects: (i) Investigating the reactive transport and exchange of vital components, such as carbon, nutrients, metals, and colloids, within the TAI; (ii) Assessing the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of solutes within the TAI; (iii) Unravelling the factors  modulating the exchange processes at the TAI; (iv) Water quality aspects within the TAI; (v) Analyzing the ecological repercussions of solutes and pollutants within this interface. We actively seek research endeavors that delve into the impact of solutes, nutrients, and pollutants on the TAI environment. Additionally, we extend an invitation to explore submarine groundwater discharge, saltwater intrusion, and the exchange of contaminants of emerging concern, as well as microplastics, within the TAI. We also welcome innovative methodologies to comprehensively characterize surface water/groundwater interactions and the associated driving mechanisms at the TAI, encompassing cutting-edge measurement and modelling tools, machine learning applications, robust big data analyses, and integrated approaches.

  • 10g: "Water monopoly and contamination of mercury, arsenic & lead from ammunition residues under war conflict"

    Local conflicts in the world can threaten food and water security as they are often accompanied by the control of water and food and, even worse, contaminated water and soil from munitions dropped explosions and ammunition left in the soil that contain mercury, arsenic, and lead. Although it is more urgent to reconcile conflicts and prevent wars, the environmental and ecological problems brought about by wars are more lingering problems. Post-war homeland reconstruction urgently needs to restore the ecological environment and develop strategies on how to better deal with metal and other pollution associated with war to ensure food safety and human health. We welcome submissions that use in-situ measurements, remote sensing, modeling, and other means to inform effective policy suggestions for post-war governments.

  • 10h: "Fate and Mobility of Hazardous Pollutants in the Subsurface"

    The session will focus on the fate and mobility of hazardous pollutants in the subsurface under climate change conditions. The session welcomes research on field/pilot-scale/lab studies and experiments on recent developments in understanding the fate and transport of hazardous pollutants in subsurface. This session will highlight multi-method approaches at a lab/pilot/demonstrative scales that assess i) hazardous waste sites, ii) soil-water systems contaminated with hazardous chemicals, and iii) wastewater having hazardous chemicals and/or microplastics. This session covers the topics on adsorption, precipitation, dissolution, leachability, and mobility of hazardous pollutants in geological media. Topics related to laboratory experiments, hydrogeological characterization, theoretical analysis and numerical modeling will be discussed. Presentations on disposal of hazardous wastes, forecasting of hazardous pollutants under climate change conditions, and environmental assessment from any fields, such as hydrogeology, earth science, and engineering, are also welcome.

    Introducing recent multi-scale advancement in the fate and transport of such as contaminants in subsurface systems under varying conditions, the proposed session will offer a valuable resource/guide for researchers and academicians in the field of the geochemistry, hydrology, and soil/ environmental sciences. This session will also offer extensive updates on multimethod approaches to the manager/field practitioners who are involved in the remediation, restoration, and management of polluted sites.

  • 10i: "(Bio-)remediation of hazardous pollutants in soils, surface and groundwater systems"

    The session aims to showcase the high technology readiness level studies on (Bio-)remediation of hazardous pollutants, much needed for restoring polluted sites using eco-friendly approaches. This session covers the topics on biostimulation, bioaugmentation, microbiome-based remediation, phytoremediation, algae-based decontamination, nano or biochar materials-based decontamination techniques for hazardous pollutants in soil and groundwater systems. The session highlights the recent lab/field/pilot-scale research and developments in this area, and it proposes to culminate the multimethod approaches to handle i) hazardous solid waste and liquid waste, ii) soil-water systems contaminated with hazardous chemicals, iii) wastewater contaminated with hazardous chemicals/microplastics. Introducing the recent advancement in the (bio-)remediation of such contaminants in soils, surface and groundwater systems under varying conditions, the proposed session will offer extensive updates on multimethod approaches to the manager/field practitioners involved in the remediation, restoration, and management of polluted sites.

  • 10j: "Isotopic tracers and geochemistry of biominerals in terrestrial and freshwater systems"

    The chemistry of biogenic minerals (e.g., shells, otoliths, fin rays, bones) is notoriously complex, but these minerals have the potential to provide geochemical records and insights into both environmental conditions and biological processes during formation. Organisms exert some amount of control over mineral precipitation, which chemically distinguishes biogenic minerals from those precipitated abiotically.  This session intends to showcase research using geochemical or isotopic tracers to (1) track environmental sources and processes recorded in the shells or other biomineralized parts of freshwater or terrestrial organisms and/or (2) elucidate the dual roles of biological and environmental influences on the biomineralization processes and preservation of biosignatures.  Topics could include, but are not limited to, the use of novel isotope systems, biochemical ion transport mechanisms, schlerochronology of shells or otoliths as paleoclimate proxies, isotopic provenance studies of humans or other animals, preservation of geochemical signals during diagenesis, chemistry and mineralogy of biominerals in freshwater algae or bacteria, and the use of trace metal chemistry in determining mobility of organisms.  Mineralized hard parts could include carbonates (including amorphous calcium carbonate), sulfate minerals, silica, and apatite.  Contributions focused on advances in analytical techniques, the development of novel isotopic proxies in biominerals, and studies of trace metal uptake into biogenic minerals are encouraged.

  • 10k: "Mechanisms and kinetics of biogeochemical reactions driven by natural organic matter"

    Biogeochemical reactions in terrestrial and aquatic environments are mediated by natural organic matter (NOM). Physico-chemical complexities of NOM, including heterogeneity and polyfunctionality act as precursors in biogeochemical cycling. For example, the association of NOM with redox-sensitive elements like iron, sulfur, nitrogen, or manganese drives redox processes that influence metal speciation, mineral transformation, greenhouse gas emission, and nutrient bioavailability. Additionally, the intricate relationship of NOM with mineral surfaces, including particulate and colloidal phases, influences the decomposition and transformation pathways of NOM. Last but not the least, microbial community composition and activity is reliant on the characteristics and availability of NOM for optimal functioning.

    To decipher the ultimate role NOM plays in biogeochemical processes, it is essential to develop molecular scale kinetic and mechanistic understanding of these processes in natural environments including soil, sediments, wetlands etc.

    This session invites contributions on the dynamics of NOM in biogeochemical processes in aquatic and terrestrial systems, focusing on the role of NOM in 1) nutrient and contaminant cycling; 2) mineral transformations; 3) greenhouse gas emissions; and 4) microbial metabolism. Furthermore, we invite contributions that shed light on the impact of NOM composition and on the transformation and decomposition pathways of NOM. We welcome lab or field based experimental studies as well as theoretical modelling studies, and novel methodological insights that improve our current mechanistic understanding of these processes.

  • 10l: "Redox processes in terrestrial and aquatic systems and their impact on contaminant and nutrient cycling"

    Biogeochemical cycles of elements (such as C, S, Mn, Fe) of terrestrial and aquatic systems are driven by molecular processes occurring at aqueous-solid interfaces including redox reactions. These reactions, i.e. the biotic or abiotic transfer of electrons, govern the bioavailability of nutrients (P, Cu, Zn, Mo, etc.) and contaminants (As, Cr, V, Sb, Se, U, etc.), exerting direct control over water quality and soil/sediment health. However, despite decades of attention, many questions related to the impacts of redox mechanisms on nutrient and contaminant cycling from molecular- to ecosystems-scale remain unresolved. For example, colloids, critical components of element budget in redox-dynamic systems, must urgently be considered in field as well as lab experiments and reactive transport models. Redox spatiotemporal heterogeneity should be incorporated into mainstream conceptualizations of soil biogeochemistry. Redox dynamic impact on carbon cycling, and inversely interferences of organic carbon on redox-generated element cycling, stay poorly defined. The mechanisms, rates, and kinetics of electron transfer between microbes and minerals remain poorly characterized. And overall, multiple redox mechanisms driving nutrient and contaminant (im)mobilization are still unresolved.

    We welcome contributions that (1) look at these molecular mechanisms in lab as well as field studies, (2) contaminant and mineral transformation in redox dynamic environments in terrestrial, aquatic, and coastal systems, (3) retrospective impact of redox dynamic and carbon cycling, (4) novel methodological insights that highlight mechanistic understanding of these processes, (5) modeling studies that include redox processes and their impact on contaminant and nutrient mobility.

11 | THEME 11: ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HUMAN HEALTH

Unprecedented fast-paced environmental changes in a warming climate and the rapid rate of formulation, production, and disposal of synthetic compounds necessitate in-depth studies of the biogeochemistry of contaminants and nutrients in various environments. These studies draw on approaches used widely across biogeochemistry but also involve unique and interdisciplinary components. Climate change may lead to increases in air pollution, water and soil contamination, nutritional deficiencies, and exposure to complex chemical mixtures that impact ecosystems and human health. Robust environmental and health policies that mitigate exposure and risk rely on monitoring, predicting, and mitigating the release of anthropogenic and geogenic contaminants, as well as understanding biogeochemical nutrient cycling and assessing ecosystem and human health effects. This theme aims to enhance the understanding of the intricate connections between biogeochemistry, environmental contamination, nutrient supply, and human well-being using bridging new techniques and interdisciplinary approaches encompassing environmental and health sciences. We invite sessions that spotlight subjects including, but not limited to: sources of, and processes affecting, contaminants in the context of changing climate; water, soil, and air quality; ecotoxicology and human health risk assessment; geochemistry of emerging contaminants; case studies of environmental contamination and health outcomes; metallomics and isotope metallomics; advances in measurement and experimental techniques; and novel computational approaches for environmental and health studies.
  • 11a: "Naturally occurring contaminants in drinking water and source water"

    Naturally occurring contaminants, including geogenic contaminants, like arsenic, uranium, and manganese, in surface waters and groundwaters can limit their suitability for use as drinking water supplies. In the United States, public water systems must monitor and treat for regulated geogenic contaminants, while private well supplied drinking water is not regulated and typically infrequently tested and treated. This poses economic, health, and environmental justice concerns and can lead to disparities in safe and affordable water access. Climate change, increases in water demand, and population growth will further exacerbate challenges in achieving universal access to safe drinking water. In this session, we invite contributions that discuss the geochemistry of naturally occurring contaminants in drinking water and/or source water (e.g. rivers, lakes, streams, reservoirs, groundwater, etc.) and their implications for water management and human health. We welcome field- and lab-based studies and modeling studies, and studies that utilize novel interdisciplinary methods. We particularly welcome geochemical studies that inform public policy and public health impacts of naturally occurring contaminants.

  • 11b: "Exploring planetary health with geochemical tools"

    Planetary health is a holistic approach aims at understanding the interconnections between human health, ecosystems, and the Earth's geological and geochemical systems. Geochemical approaches provide invaluable insights into these complex relationships, allowing to identify, assess and address the impacts of human activities on our planet's health. Environmental Geochemistry represents one of the most useful tools to assess and monitor pollution events, evaluate environmental quality and to characterize the fate of pollutants. The integration of various techniques such as elemental analysis, isotopes, geospatial techniques, or hydrological assessment allows us to identify the nature/origin of a polluting agent as well as the eventual processes controlling its fate in the environment. This session welcomes novel and exciting contributions using mineralogical, geochemical, geospatial and isotope approaches to improve our understanding of sources, transport and sinks of pollutants that affect planetary health. We particularly encourage presentations that use an interdisciplinary approach to advance the understanding of planetary health in all its dimensions.

  • 11c: "Geochemical and Environmental Aspects of Surfaces: Processes and Modeling"

    In this session we encourage submissions that explore environmental geochemistry and surface/interface science, particularly those that offer insights into the cycling of metals and metalloids in the environment, including isotope fractionation studies. These may include investigation of surface interactions with a wide array of inorganic elements, organic compounds, and microbial communities, including the role of microorganisms in biogeochemical cycling. Research focusing on mineral surface reactions, isotope fractionation phenomena, organic matter interactions, or the behavior of trace elements across diverse environmental compartments is highly encouraged. We also encourage studies using molecular level techniques and modeling approaches intended to understand the geochemical processes involved.

    Our goal is to promote a deep understanding, bridging the gap from atomic-scale insights to macro-scale impacts, shedding light on how environmental processes operate across multiple levels. We value diverse perspectives and methodologies in this endeavor.

  • 11d: "From Healing to Harm: Humanity’s Toxic Relationship with Contaminants of Emerging Concern"

    Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) are a group of pollutants whose sources, behaviour, fate and effect on the environment are not well understood; CECs are also almost completely unregulated. Most CECs were created with intention to better human life and have now turned out to be an environmental hazard. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) for example, are a major reason for improved health and wellbeing across the world. Ironically PPCPs are also known to cause huge impact on ecosystems, cause antimicrobial resistance and even impact human health directly. There are new compounds being added to the list of CECs all the time, while the research on the effects, sources, fate and removal of these contaminants continues to be limited. Due to improper disposal, lack of treatment and regulations CECs have entered the environmental compartments leading to adverse effects on ecosystems. This session will focus on the behaviour and interactions of CECs after its release to the environment; their modes of transport and their ultimate fate.

    The main areas of focus are:

    1. The sources, modes of transportation and fate of Contaminants of Emerging Concern
    2. Contaminants of Emerging Concern as part of geochemical cycles (Interactions with riverine, soil and other processes)
    3. Advances in detection, classification and removal techniques of Contaminants of Emerging Concern
    4. Impact of CECs on Human and Environmental Health
    5. Antimicrobial resistance due to CECs
    6. Climate Change and CECs
    7. Other related research on CECs and human health.

  • 11e: "Environmental radioactivity: impacts on ecosystems and human health"

    Natural radioactivity is present in our environment as a result of cosmic radiation from space and terrestrial sources from soil and rocks containing primordial radionuclides as Uranium, Thorium and Potassium. Radon (222Rn) gas is notably the primary source of ionising radiation that people are exposed to, making it a significant indoor air pollutant due to its harmful effects on human health (cancerogenic, W.H.O.). Additionally, man-made radionuclides released during nuclear incidents or accidents also add to the overall radioactivity in the environment. This session embraces all the aspects and challenges of environmental radioactivity including geogenic and anthropogenic contaminants in the context of changing climate (e.g. melting of permafrost in polar areas), atmosphere tracing including greenhouse gases and pollutant, monitoring of air, soil and groundwater quality.

    Specific focus on radon hazard and risk assessment and on the relevance of the radioactivity for public health, including the contamination from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), are strongly encouraged.

    Contributions on novel methods and instrumentation for environmental radioactivity measures and monitoring including portable detectors, airborne and drones’ surveys and geostatistical methods for radioactivity mapping are also encouraged.

  • 11f: "A Geochemical Perspective Toward Environmental Solutions"

    Fundamental geochemical knowledge is often at the center of optimal design and implementation of soil and water remediation strategies. For example, in toxic metal(loid) clean-up via soil amendments, phytoremediation, or chemical injections to stimulate in-situ bioremediation of surface and groundwaters, molecular-scale understanding of underlying geochemical drivers has proven essential in successful remediation of a variety of contaminants across ecosystems. Recent advances in synchrotron-based X-ray characterization techniques and the growing use of genomic data have made it possible to identify complex molecular-scale pathways of contaminant geochemical cycling and ensuing bioavailability in the field. This multidisciplinary session aims to showcase environmental remediation projects that have benefited from geochemical approaches and understanding, with a particular emphasis on remediation of inorganic pollutants (e.g., Pb, Cd, Hg, N, P, U, As). We specifically encourage presentations that integrate molecular-scale data with macroscopic measurements to directly investigate the fate of metal(loid) and/or nutrient-derived contaminants at small or large-scale field sites. Laboratory investigations of polluted water or soils derived from contaminated field sites are also welcomed. We look forward to an inspiring session that includes presentations from early-career to senior scientists with diverse expertise to delve into key geochemical processes underpinning environmental remediation.

  • 11g: "Fire impacts on biogeochemical processes under global climate change"

    Robust projections by climate experts indicate that the risk of fires will continue to increase as global warming continues. Although the effects of wildfire on soil biogeochemical processes are less visible than vegetation effects, a myriad of highly variable changes to soil moisture and biogeochemical cycling can occur in response to severe fires. These changes to soil hydrology and soil organic matter (SOM) turnover can have long-lasting impacts on the ability of soils to sustain ecosystem functioning. Most persistent fire induced changes in biogeochemical cycling and contaminant transport after moderate to severe fires are controlled by, and can be understood through, changes in soil conditions that spatially and temporally shift the geochemistry and carbon storage potential of soil minerals. In this session, we invite contributions which explore research priorities in the following categories of fire ecology: (a) characteristics of fire regimes, (b) changing fire regimes, (c) fire effects on above- and below ground ecology; and (d) fire ecology modelling. We identify three emergent themes: the need to study fire across temporal scales, to assess the mechanisms underlying a variety of ecological feedbacks involving fire and to improve representation of fire in a range of modelling contexts. We encourage submissions which include experimental and theoretical contributions, including advances in methodology and analytical techniques to understand how prescribed and wildland fires affect key soil biogeochemical processes, such as mineral transformation, microbially-mediated SOM decomposition, and elemental mobility and contaminant transport at different spatiotemporal scales under a rapidly changing climate scenario.

  • 11h: "Emerging Contaminants: Geochemical Insights and Impacts on Human and Environmental Health"

    Emerging contaminants are a multifaceted challenge with far-reaching implications
    for ecological functions and human health. The extent and consequences of novel
    contaminants derived from everyday activities such as industrial production, pharmaceutical
    consumption, personal care product use, agricultural practices, and waste disposal remain
    largely unknown. However, increasing awareness of novel contaminant accumulation across
    the biosphere has led to the recognition that we are now in a ‘high-risk zone’ of transgressing
    a planetary boundary with regard to novel entities in the environment.
    Water bodies and terrestrial systems are particularly vulnerable to novel substances
    such as PFAS, microplastics, PPCPs, organic solvents, organic/inorganic fertilizers and
    pesticides, and biosolids. The wide range of novel contaminants with complex interactions
    under varying biogeochemical conditions complicates measuring their abundance, projecting
    their environmental trajectory, and assessing risks to human and environmental wellbeing.
    The improved understanding of contaminant chemistry in the aqueous and agro/ terrestrial
    environment can serve as a key tool in the strategic designing of innovative and sustainable
    remediation approaches. This session aims to develop an understanding of progress in
    analytical methods to identify emerging contaminants, their fate, and transport under different
    geochemical scenarios, while also emphasizing methods for mitigating contaminated water
    and soil.
    In this session, we equally encourage submissions on (i) advances in analytical
    methods (ii) the fate and impact of microplastics/nanoplastics, PFAS, PPCPs, and other
    emerging pollutants, and (iii) novel techniques, materials, and approaches to mitigate
    contaminated sites. The session covers multiple aspects ranging from lab- and mesocosm- to
    field-scale experimental observations.

  • 11i: "Application of environmental stable isotope measurements to anthropogenically influenced systems and human health"

    Under the increasing influences of climate change and human activities, non-traditional stable isotopes (Such as Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, Zn, B, Si, Cl and Br) are becoming an indispensable approach for studying the impacts of these elements on the environment and human health. Applications may include tracing the sources and transport of contaminants across environmental compartments, elucidating the transformation mechanisms of contaminant and nutrient elements, quantifying the bioaccumulation, toxification and metabolic processes of contaminants in organisms, and rebuilding the evolution of biogeochemical processes. These studies are typically based on field, experimental or numerical modelling approaches, and can span various spatial and temporal scales.

    In this session, we focus on the recent advances in the application of non-traditional stable isotopes in environmental geochemistry, particularly in the following topics:

    • Experimental, modeling or theoretical studies to elucidate the isotope fractionation mechanism
    • Determining the source, transport, or fate of anthropogenic contaminants in the environment using non-traditional isotopes
    • Studying the metabolism and health effects of metal and organic contaminants in animals or humans using non-traditional isotopes
    • Novel interdisciplinary studies that combine non-traditional isotopes and emerging techniques such as big data and artificial intelligence

12 | THEME 12: CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES OF THE OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERE

The ocean and atmosphere are dynamic systems that play crucial roles in regulating Earth's climate and habitability. This theme invites sessions that seek to advance our understanding of the fundamental principles governing the behavior of the ocean and atmosphere, their interactions, and their responses to natural and anthropogenic drivers. Sessions within this theme can cover a wide range of topics, including (but not limited to): the transport and transformation of major and trace elements in the oceans and atmosphere; the sources, sinks, and dynamics of greenhouse gases and pollutants; development and application of proxies to study environmental change and Earth system evolution; and, sensitivity of global biogeochemical cycles to natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Sessions that address the chemistry and physics of extreme events—recent or in the geological past—are also encouraged. We welcome sessions that utilize a variety of observational, experimental, and modeling approaches to investigate these processes. This may involve studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, numerical simulations, or data assimilation techniques.
  • 12a: "A Remarkable Legacy of Advancements in Stable Isotope Geochemistry: A Session Honoring the Career of Karlis Muehlenbachs"

    This proposed session seeks to celebrate the distinguished career of Karlis Muehlenbachs, a trailblazer in the field of stable isotope geochemistry and a pioneering contributor to our understanding of the oxygen isotope composition of seawater and hydrothermal systems. For more than 5 decades, his groundbreaking research has significantly advanced our knowledge of Earth's processes and has left an indelible mark on the scientific community. From his seminal contributions to understanding the oxygen isotope composition of seawater to his extensive studies on hydrothermal systems, ore deposits, petroleum systems, amber, and ancient life, Karlis continually applied innovative approaches that have enhanced our comprehension of the processes occurring in these dynamic environments, shedding light on the intricate interplay of geochemical reactions. This session welcomes contributions from researchers, collaborators, and mentees to present their work and share personal reflections on Karlis’s profound influence. Presentations will highlight the enduring impact of his extraordinary career, providing an opportunity for the scientific community to reflect on his contributions and inspire future generations of geochemists.

  • 12b: "Seafloor hydrothermal processes and their impacts on the modern and ancient Earth"

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems have profoundly influenced Earth’s biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere throughout Earth history.  However, their very nature within the oceanic crust drastically limits the temporal extent of direct geologic observations of their existence.  Thus, attempts to correlate seafloor hydrothermal processes with biological evolution, global elemental budgets, and global redox states throughout Earth history generally require interdisciplinary efforts that integrate studies of modern systems, interpretations of the geologic record, novel laboratory experiments, and numerical models.  In this session, we intend to host a forum for presenting and integrating these various sets of observations in order to focus the community’s efforts on answering key questions regarding the role of seafloor hydrothermal processes in the Earth system. In particular, we invite contributions focusing on seafloor measurements of modern hydrothermal systems; studies of recovered oceanic drill core, obducted oceanic lithosphere, or proxy records in ancient sedimentary rocks; experimental exploration of seafloor (bio)geochemical interactions; and integrative numerical models that expand the spatiotemporal scales of these field and experimental observations. Specific focuses could include the role of seafloor hydrothermalism in carbon and other elemental cycles, studies of the linkages between hydrothermal alteration, crustal mineralogy, and seawater geochemistry, and the relation between hydrothermal systems and the tempos and milestones of biological evolution.

  • 12c: "Speciation and isotope analysis of metal ions in aerosols related to their source and chemical processes"

    Speciation and isotopic analyses of metal ions in different types of aerosols have been carried out to understand their sources and chemical processes during long-range transport and after deposition. For example, Fe isotopes in aerosols transported to the HNLC region in the ocean have been measured to know their sources and the speciation of Fe is important to discuss its fractional solubility in seawater, both of which are important to understand the supply of soluble Fe to the ocean as a nutrient for phytoplankton. Similarly, speciation and isotopic analysis are important for Zn, Cu, Ni, and any other metal ions in aerosols, which are important from a number of perspectives. We encourage the submission of all geochemical and environmental studies that analyze either speciation or isotope ratios or both for metal ions in aerosols to extract all information in aerosols from all sources such as anthropogenic sources and natural sources emitted from arid areas and volcanoes. Analyses of aerosols in the past to understand the atmospheric environment in the Anthropocene are also included in this session. All studies on advanced analytical techniques for speciation and isotopic analysis of aerosols and laboratory studies simulating any processes such as combustion aerosol formation and dissolution in water are also welcome.

  • 12d: "Air Pollution, Oxidative Potential, and Human Health"

    Air pollution is among the major environmental concerns of our society, which adversely affects human health and economy. Among various air pollutants, ambient PM2.5 is considered as the most hazardous components. Therefore, the mass concentration of ambient PM2.5, which is often considered as the sole measure of its toxicity, is tightly regulated in most countries of the world. However, several recent studies have shown that aerosol toxicity is a function of their physical and chemical composition and not mass alone. Researchers are trying to establish the links between physicochemical properties of aerosols and human health through cohort studies. There are mounting evidences which suggest that main toxicological pathways follow the induction of respiratory oxidative stress upon inhalation of air pollutants by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the human body. Oxidative potential (OP) is used as a metric for the potential of species in aerosol to deplete the antioxidants and form ROS. Establishing the relationships between aerosol sources, size, and chemical composition, exposure pathways biochemical mechanisms, and health outcomes is the key for risk assessment of air pollutants. This session shall provide a platform for experts to share their research on the role of aerosol OP in the adverse health outcomes of air pollution exposure. Submission topics could include but not limited to: OP of indoor/outdoor aerosols, OP and its relation to aerosol chemical and physical characteristics and emission sources, applications of acellular/cellular OP assays in health and other studies (e.g. OP of soil and its effects).

  • 12e: "Geochemical perspectives on measuring, reporting and verifying carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere"

    It is widely accepted that substantial carbon dioxide removal (CDR) is required in addition to rapid and significant emissions reductions if we are to keep the extent of global warming caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to <2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Research into CDR technologies, including approaches such as ocean alkalinity enhancement, direct air capture, bioenergy carbon capture and storage, enhanced weathering and mineral carbonation, amongst others, is progressing at rapid pace, yet there remain considerable uncertainties in quantifying the efficiency of CDR and verifying the security of storage. There is an urgent need to address these uncertainties to unlock financing and facilitate large-scale deployment for all CDR technologies.

    This session will focus on the scientific principles, current state-of-the-art, and future requirements for enabling effective measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of CDR. We seek contributions on all CDR technologies utilising modelling, experimental and/or field-scale approaches. Contributions that explore the wider environmental, social and governmental challenges related to CDR deployment are also invited.

  • 12f: "Tracing physical and (bio)geochemical changes in the past and present (sub)polar oceans"

    Warming, freshening, and increased atmosphere-ice-ocean coupling are projected to affect ocean surface conditions in both polar regions, with consequences for the distribution and fate of freshwater, nutrients, trace metals, carbon, and pollutants. To explore the impacts of abrupt climate change on these critical regions, we aim to open a dialogue between paleoceanographers, chemical oceanographers working on the modern oceans, and modelers. We invite submissions that apply new and proven observational or modeling methods to explore the chemical history, current state, and future prospects of the polar oceans and their low-latitude connections. Topics of interest include but are not limited to (1) the application of paleo-proxies to unravel past oceanic conditions and their impact on, or feedbacks with, climate, (2) the past and present biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and trace metals as observed through trace element and isotope geochemistry and the associated ecosystem responses, and (3) the integration of geochemical tracers with physical oceanography to further elucidate present-day circulation and matter pathways and fluxes. We particularly encourage submissions that address feedbacks associated with changes in the climate-sensitive land-ocean continuum and (marine) cryosphere. We hope to foster interdisciplinary collaborations to stimulate discussion, share knowledge, and improve our understanding of these critical and rapidly changing environments.

  • 12g: "Iron biogeochemistry from sediment to the ocean: past and present"

    Iron plays a key role in the Earth System. Today, biological productivity is iron-limited in large areas of an iron-poor ocean. In contrast, iron-rich sedimentary rocks found in the geological record suggest that the past ocean has seen iron-rich (ferruginous) states. These geological iron records hold information on past Earth's oxygenation state and oceanic iron cycling. Despite the importance of the iron cycle in the Earth System, there are still many questions about its functioning in the present and past oceans, such as the impact of diagenesis on iron proxies in the rock record and the contribution of different iron sources to the ocean. Iron isotopes are a powerful tool to study iron cycling that could help to constrain iron fluxes in past and present oceans, yet data on iron isotopic signatures in past and present marine environments are still rare and consequently, our understanding of the processes determining iron isotopic signatures is limited.

    A combination of approaches should be taken to address the major outstanding questions in marine iron biogeochemical research. This session therefore aims to bring together contributions that target marine iron cycling across a range of spatial and temporal scales, both in present-day environments and in the geological past, using theoretical, isotopic, experimental, or field-based techniques.

13 | THEME 13: CLIMATE CHANGE: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

Climate variations occur on many scales. The present scope of climate change is drawing increasing notice and scientific interest. This theme will focus on the Earth’s climate system, drawing on geochemistry and modeling to provide insights into the operation, magnitude, and rates of past climate change to inform present and future climate change projections. We welcome contributions using paleoclimate records which are sensitive to atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere processes. We also welcome contributions addressing important climate feedbacks and mechanisms, especially the role of the carbon cycle in climate.  We anticipate offering sessions that focus on the application of marine, terrestrial, and ice core proxies; geochemical dating tools; Earth system and geochemical modeling, and model-data comparisons; as well as the development of new proxies and models to constrain the climate of the past, present, and future.
  • 13a: "Evolution of Asian monsoon through Cenozoic"

    The precipitation during the monsoon is critical for billions of people residing in Asia. A minor shift in intensity, duration, and spatial extent of the monsoon wreaks havoc in this region. The monsoon winds also strongly affect the Indian Ocean and other nearby seas by modulating the hydrography, runoff, and productivity. The impact of anthropogenic global warming on monsoon is highly debated from wet getting wetter to dry getting wetter. The past monsoon records based on both the terrestrial and marine archives can help to understand the imminent change in monsoon precipitation in response to global warming. Extensive efforts are made to reconstruct the monsoon and associated processes by using speleothem, dendrochronology, sedimentary characteristics, and microfossils. We welcome contributions discussing monsoon reconstruction from Asia and nearby seas, by using both the terrestrial and marine archives or proxies. The abstracts with quantitative estimates of the temperature, runoff, and productivity from the Asian continent and nearby seas in the past, are especially encouraged.

  • 13b: "Geochemical Insights into Climate and Environmental Change from the Eocene to the Holocene and into the Future"

    Earth’s climate system is undergoing rapid change in the modern era. Understanding how its components have responded to past environmental change is critical for refining projections into the near future. We invite studies leveraging both established and novel geochemical proxies to reconstruct important climate parameters such as ice volume, oxygenation, carbon storage, and primary/export production. Multi-proxy approaches or work integrating biogeochemistry with earth system modeling are also welcome. We encourage submissions spanning a range of timescales, including (but not limited to) deglaciations, glacial-interglacial cycles, climate transitions, and past warm intervals (e.g., the Miocene Climate Optimum, Early Eocene Climate Optimum, etc.).

  • 13c: "Tracking Earth’s Hydrologic Cycle with Stable Isotopes in Water"

    Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in water are well-established and effective tools for understanding the earth system, yielding fundamental insights into the dynamics of past and present climates. Water isotope-based paleoclimate proxy measurements have provided some of the most important records of past climate change. In the modern earth system, stable water isotope measurements have delivered insights into hydrologic provenance and key physical processes in the ocean, atmosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere. Innovative techniques allowing for high temporal resolution water isotope measurements as well as advances in remote-sensing of water isotopologues have recently produced new research directions in the field. Furthermore, new capabilities surrounding the incorporation of stable water isotopes into both simple and complex modeling frameworks are enabling improved interpretation of stable water isotopes in both modern waters and isotope-based paleoclimate archives. This session welcomes abstracts that pertain to the measurement, modeling, paleo-reconstruction, or application of stable water isotope data to further understanding of past, present, or future variability in the climate system.

  • 13d: "Investigating past and present cryosphere change using geochemical techniques"

    Anthropogenic global warming has led to profound changes in the cryosphere and resulted in substantial ice loss from glaciers worldwide. Investigating processes behind ice mass changes requires an integrated understanding of feedbacks within the Earth system by using both modern and past analogues. Geochemical records can help to clarify glacier and ice sheet processes, reconstruct local climate conditions, and refine our understanding of the response of the cryosphere to future warming. Therefore, we welcome submissions that incorporate insights from both modern and paleo geochemical and geological archives and proxies. This session is broadly open to geochemical applications, including geochronological techniques such as terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides, stable isotope systems, uranium series, as well as novel proxies and isotopic systems. Moreover, we encourage submissions based on modern observations of isotope tracing and hydro- and biogeochemical proxies from glacierized basins and subglacial systems. In particular, we encourage submissions from early career researchers and interdisciplinary studies.

  • 13e: "Dust as recorder of climatic and environmental changes"

    Dust particles, emitted by aeolian erosion of arid and semi-arid soils, affect the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere, thereby influencing Earth’s climate system, including changing the atmospheric radiation balance, impacting the cryosphere, influencing marine biochemistry and oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2, fertilizing terrestrial ecosystems, and by transporting pollutants. All these processes are directly linked to the particles’ size, geochemical and mineralogical composition, their source, and their atmospheric transport pathways. In contrast, the parameters controlling mineral dust emissions are very sensitive to climate variations and involve feedbacks that are recognized as major uncertainties of climate change.

    This session aims to highlight research examining the geochemical links between the global dust cycle, climate, and environmental changes over a wide range of timescales and geographic areas. This includes, but is not limited to, the reconstruction of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment from regional paleodust records; the geochemical and mineralogical characterization of dust aerosols; the use of isotopes, trace elements and other/new geochemical proxies for dust provenance tracking and for the differentiation of natural vs anthropogenic sources; and the incorporation of dust records in atmospheric circulation models. We invite submissions featuring contemporary observations (e.g., aerosol sampling, satellite observation) as well as proxy data from geological archives (e.g., marine sediments, loess deposits, ice cores, peat bogs), and results from dust model experiments. We encourage contributions that connect dust research to communities’ driven education, public service and policy. These would synergistically contribute to cross-cutting Theme 14: Geochemistry Informing the Public and Policy for a Better World.

  • 13f: "Reconstruction of climate and environmental changes in terrestrial archives from geochemical tracers"

    Climate and environmental changes are among important challenges facing our society today. The variations in the Earth's climate and environment on land will have the most direct impact on human populations. These variations are well preserved in terrestrial geological records as geochemical proxies. We study them to improve our understanding of Earth's climate evolution through time.

    This session will focus on novel approaches and multiproxy developments to investigate terrestrial paleoclimate records in geological samples. We welcome contributions that focus on archives such as speleothems, lake sediments, and paleosols and proxies that include conventional and non-conventional stable isotopes, trace metal analyses, lipid biomarkers such as tetraether lipids, alkenones and others to investigate climate and environmental variability over time.  We anticipate covering a wide range of time periods , hence, long-term records or event-focused anomalous periods are welcome in the session.

    We also encourage contributions that help to calibrate such proxy records, for example laboratory experiments, model simulations, field monitoring, and the use of novel analytical instrumentation and data science approaches.

  • 13g: "From hot to cold: Advances in reconstructing ocean temperatures during the Cenozoic"

    Accurate reconstructions of sea surface and bottom water temperatures in the geological past are critical for our understanding of climate dynamics during different climate states, especially those characterised by warmer than present day climate conditions. Producing robust and precise past ocean temperature estimates, however, is inherently challenging. Proxies are subject to a range of different geochemical, biological, environmental, and analytical caveats. As a result, absolute and relative temperature changes reconstructed using different proxy approaches often disagree, and synthesising globally representative temperature records is difficult. These challenges impede our ability to accurately infer rates and magnitudes of ocean temperature change in response to abrupt and long-term changes in atmospheric CO2. Our ability to disentangle the respective sensitivities of each proxy approach and to overcome their specific biases relies on combined advances in modelling, proxy, and calibration approaches. In this session we welcome contributions providing new records of Cenozoic ocean temperature change, including advanced insights from multi-proxy and multi-site temperature reconstructions, reconstructions exploiting proxy and calibration developments, and insights from modelling approaches. This session intends to bring together the diverse community studying past ocean temperatures from a range of proxy and modelling techniques to move towards acquiring more robust temperature constraints on Cenozoic timescales which are needed to better understand Earth’s climate state and its dynamics in past warm climates.  

  • 13h: "Biomineralization and the environment: Observations, correlations, and proxies to reveal past, present, and future responses to changing climates"

    Organisms form minerals, or biominerals, as they inhabit their environments. Inescapably, the environment leaves signatures on the final biomineral, which can then be interpreted as proxies to reconstruct paleo-environments before during and after dramatically changing climates that led to mass extinctions, correlate with modern environments, or predict future responses to climate change. Speakers and listeners from the biomineralization community, the proxies geochemistry community and the environmental and climate change communities will come together to share their separate expertise in this diverse session. We invite contribution from people working on pH, temperature, salinity, elemental or isotopic composition, crystallography, or any other geochemical observations, correlations, and proxies to reveal past, present, and future responses to climate change.

14 | THEME 14: CROSS-CUTTING THEME: GEOCHEMISTRY INFORMING THE PUBLIC AND POLICY FOR A BETTER WORLD

Geochemistry offers unique solutions to global and local challenges. However, translating this promise into practice necessitates an open, diverse, equitable and inclusive scientific model. This cross-cutting theme links sessions and abstracts, submitted to any of the other themes, that explore various aspects of using geochemistry to inform the public and policy. Efforts to diversify the field of geochemistry and create an inclusive community are also welcome. Examples of topics linked to this theme include: the role of geochemistry in providing solutions for society in large or smaller communities; effective engagements with policy-makers; educational strategies to promote geochemical understanding in schools, during outreach and beyond; advancing equitable and inclusive participation in science; developing open data and software infrastructure; and developing a new scientific culture that supports accessible and diverse science for the future. We hope that by sharing our experiences and materials across all the themes in geochemistry, we will better integrate and highlight these very important efforts across the entire geochemistry community through this cross-cutting theme.
  • 14a: "Advancing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Geochemistry: Learnings and Future Perspectives"

    Geochemistry, a multifaceted field that spans Chemistry, Earth, Planetary, and Environmental Sciences, offers unique insights into evolution of planetary compositions and our Earth System processes and responses to drivers of change. However, evidence exists for a significant and ongoing challenges in fostering a diverse and inclusive community. A critical issue is the unequal access to resources, which can perpetuate disparities in representation. Moreover, the multifaceted nature of geochemical research, involving laboratory, field, and computational work, demands varying skill sets and access to a wide array of resources and expert research settings. This can create additional hurdles for aspiring geochemists, further exacerbating global disparities. In recognition of these challenges, we invite presentations that delve into exploring the obstacles contributing to the underrepresentation of marginalized groups and examples of positive actions that have contributed to supporting inclusive culture in geochemistry. Our aim is to understand the nuances and complexities surrounding inequalities in access to resources and opportunities, often resulting in scientific colonialism (e.g., "parachute science", etc.). We encourage discussions on good practices and innovative solutions to eliminate these barriers, including mentorship, networking, funding, institutional initiatives, and the development of national and international policies. This session invites contributions that acknowledges and promote awareness of challenges and good practice that would help build a more equitable, diverse and inclusive geochemical community. Abstract submissions for this session are free of charge and do not preclude the submission of abstracts to other themes as a presenting author, emphasizing our commitment to inclusivity and diversity.

  • 14b: "The importance of industry-academic alliances for geochemistry"

    The 21st century is experiencing a diverse array of global challenges that include issues like climate change, future energy scenarios, biodiversity loss, conservation of natural resources, health hazards etc. These critical issues exert profound impacts on socioeconomic and environmental sustainability worldwide. There needs to be more synergy between industry and academic institutions to address these global challenges.

    To decipher the complex processes controlling geochemistry, a transversal approach is necessary that connects industry and academia. The objective of the session is to foster more industry-academia partnerships to tackle these complex problems by bringing researchers investigating geochemistry from both domains. We invite contributions addressing issues related to the energy transition, climate change, environmental pollution, biodiversity loss, health hazards etc, with the geochemical toolbox. We also welcome studies that applied a comprehensive approach not relying solely on one analytical method.

    Abstract submissions to Theme 14 are free or charge and do not preclude the submission of abstracts to other themes as a presenting author.

  • 14c: "Geochemistry Related to Nuclear Energy – Investigations to Geologic Disposal of Nuclear Waste, Nuclear Policy, and Nuclear Non-Proliferation"

    This session will cover multiple applications of geochemistry to the nuclear energy field. Topics include the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear non-proliferation. Submissions may also include applications of geochemistry-related analytical techniques to study nuclear samples. Examples of topics related to this theme include nuclear fuel production and nuclear waste reprocessing. Recognising disposal needs to consider waste with very long half-lives and examples of climate change potentially affecting the evolving geochemical environment of a geological disposal facility are welcome. Abstracts including consideration of how to communicate this important science to the public and policy-makers are also encouraged. Abstract submissions to Theme 14 are free or charge and do not preclude the submission of abstracts to other themes as a presenting author.

  • 14d: "25 years of GEOROC and PetDB: the past, present and future of research with global geochemical databases"

    In the late 1990s, when the volumes of data generated in geochemistry research were rapidly increasing and the World Wide Web made online access to databases possible, the GEOROC (https://georoc.eu/) and PetDB (https://search.earthchem.org/) databases were developed to support researchers with easy access to comprehensive datasets that revolutionized data access and mining in igneous geochemistry (Lehnert et al., 2000, doi:10.1029/1999GC000026). 25 years on, PetDB and GEOROC are the leading, open-access sources of geochemical datasets of terrestrial igneous and metamorphic rocks. They provide free access to curated compilations of rock, mineral, and melt inclusion compositions from thousands of publications, totalling >42 million single data values. The primary purpose of these databases remains to support and facilitate new research using previously published data, and provide the foundation for data analytics and machine learning techniques in modern geochemistry. 

    This session will celebrate 25 years of global databases in igneous geochemistry. We invite contributions by anyone who has used GEOROC or PetDB data for their research and in education, industry and policy; and by other data systems that were inspired by PetDB’s and GEOROC’s approach and success. The session will feature introductory talks from the two data systems, reflecting on the history and the future of big data in geochemistry. Join us for a celebratory session to share your personal data story and to learn more about the various ways GEOROC and PetDB data have contributed to the research landscape in geochemistry and beyond (e.g. archaeometry, geohealth, remote sensing) over the past 25 years.

  • 14e: "Frontiers across geochemistry: celebrating 2024, 3rd edition of the Treatise on Geochemistry"

    This year marks the release of the 3rd edition of the Treatise on Geochemistry. The Treatise provides a comprehensive, integrated summary of the present state of geochemistry, focusing on new developments in the field. It deals with most major subjects ranging from the chemistry of the solar system to environmental geochemistry. The 3rd edition of the Treatise (2024) draws on the expertise of outstanding scientists worldwide and aims to create a key reference work in geochemistry for the next decade. This session encourages submissions in this spirit, with authors asked to prepare a state-of-the-art synthesis reviewing key progress of the past ten years, and pose provocative questions for geochemistry over the next ten years.This session is open to all authors whether they participated in the 3rd edition of the Treatise or not. Abstract submissions to Theme 14 are free of charge and do not preclude the submission of abstracts to other themes as a presenting author.

  • 14z: "Geochemistry Informing the Public and Policy"

    As a cross-cutting theme, some abstracts related to Theme 14 will be integrated into the other themes of the conference. These presentations will show how the science represented in Themes 1-13 also has a role in informing the public and affecting policy decisions. In order to identify your abstract as relevant to Theme 14, please submit it to this session, 14z, and indicate the other session in Themes 1-13 in which it should ultimately be scheduled. Once your abstract is approved, it will be moved into the related theme and scheduled as part of the session you named. It will retain a link to Theme 14 so that delegates can find it in both its scheduled session and Theme 14.

    Abstract submissions to Theme 14 are free of charge and do not preclude the submission of abstracts to other themes as a presenting author. But please note that to be accepted in Theme 14, abstracts must have a significant component related to informing the public or affecting policy decisions, and not merely a tangential connection.